Wednesday, October 30, 2019

KNES - Fitness for Living Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

KNES - Fitness for Living - Essay Example Autologous blood doping is a process in which the blood of the athlete is drawn sometime back before the competition. The plasma and hemoglobin are then separated so that the plasma is injected into the athlete. The hemoglobin from the athlete is preserved for later use. After a span of two months the body naturally builds up the hemoglobin which was drawn from the body and it is just before the competition that the preserved hemoglobin is injected back into the athlete. Homologous blood doping is a process in which the hemoglobin of a donor is injected into the athlete. This type of doping carries more risks of transmitting diseases than the autologous blood doping. Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by kidney and liver which helps in increasing the production of red blood cells in the body. Synthetic erythropoietin is given in one form of blood doping which helps to increase the number of red blood cells in the body. Blood doping is known to have its own advantages and disadvanta ges. Research shows that athletes who perform blood doping have an increased aerobic capacity which helps them to use their muscles more. They also have a decreased heart rate for exercises which require strenuous work.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Seasons of the Year Essay Example for Free

Seasons of the Year Essay It was the summer break and we were hanging out at Nadias back porch. The day was the   epitome of summer: warm day, light breeze, white cotton dresses swaying among green grass. We were enjoying tall glasses of iced tea and freshly-baked oatmeal cookies, while trading stories. It was just like when we were kids, barely into puberty and boys. That was a time of daily neighborhood bike trips, of flowers nicked from unsuspecting neighbors, of promises that we will never be separated from each other, which we swore to by having identical ballpoint tattoos, of ending our daily adventures with tall, cold glasses of iced tea and freshly-baked cookies supplied by Nadias accommodating father, while listening to Lizs never ending (but never boring) tall tales. Those were the best months of my life, and I only realize that now, when they have become a distant past. Like the tire tracks we left with our bikes, the flowers we innocently uprooted, the washable tattoos, the ice cubes in the long-since consumed iced tea and oatmeal cookies, the words Liz used to narrate her imaginative stories, we took these for granted, reassured that we can do them again and again. The foolishness of youth. Who would have thought that Nadias father would be involved in a car accident, and become semi-paralyzed while we were in high school? Who would have thought that vibrant Liz would drop out of college in our second year to join an organization that deals with human rights violations overseas? And who would have thought Diana would become separated from Nadia, Carrie, and me as she leaves for Florida in a few days before flying to Japan? Our last summer of being together, before high school graduation, I realized that autumn does come early. And so does the desolation of winter.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   We were looking up at the blue sky when Liz suggested we go somewhere. We were all for it, as it was our first summer together since we started college, but we had no idea where to go. All of a sudden, Diana suggested we go to Hollywood now. We knew it was crazy, but we immediately got up, piled into Carries car, and drove away with all five of us in the car. All we had were the bills and coins in our pockets and knapsacks, the clothes on our backs, Carries car, Nadias camera, and each other.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the first stop, we bought beer and junk food. Everyone except for Carrie drank; Nadia also drank, albeit she only had a bottle. She kept taking pictures of everyone, from Lizs crazy tongue stunts, to Dianas impersonations, to my dazed reaction to everything (â€Å"What? Where are we? Whats that?†), to the view of outside from Carries seat. We were being crazy and immature, and it was like being back again to our childhood summers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It was a long car ride, but I do not remember much of what transpired then. Only, I was looking outside for sometime, and I was amazed at how one feels a certain attachment towards clouds; we were in a moving vehicle, yet I kept on looking at a certain cloud, pulling it towards me as we drove to Hollywood. The sky behind it kept on changing hues: blue, red, purple. I knew that no two clouds looked alike, especially in different seasons; yet, they are still clouds, made of the same material.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   We soon reached Hollywood, and being inebriated, transformed into giddy kids in a playground. The rest of the Hollywood tour I can only remember in a drunken blur: taking pictures with nadias camera hand prints of stars taking pictures of the stars themselves of crazy food in crowded diners of break dancing kids of shimmering lights of gangs approaching people and bashing pounding shouting running around hollywood looking for the car walking to the same places over and over and over again   losing the car carrie panicking shivering shouting crying taking the bus home drowsy because of the rocking bus like waves of the sea   looking up at night-time clouds still same clouds though different diana running frantic to airport plane bound for florida is boarding when we arrive hugging goodbye waving tears laughter friends   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Looking back, I have always seen summer as the best time of the year. It was the most familiar to me, the most comforting; I get to be with my friends again, and just hang out. Cotton dresses are always softer, and green grass is greener during summer. I get to watch the blue sky as familiar, white fluffy clouds drift. Yet, I have forgotten that they are the same water vapor forming shapes, whatever the season, just as my friends are still my friends, wherever we may be, how old we may be. I have also forgotten that though autumn may come early, it also brings with it the promise of a new summer. And if summer does end early, I can always pull out all those summer memories and remember.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Analysis of the Inferno of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy Essay

Analysis of the Inferno of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is considered by many as the first great poem in the Italian language and perhaps the greatest poem written in Medieval Europe. The poem is so famous that one of the minor characters, Capaneus the great blasphemer, has his name on a mesa on one of Jupiter's moon Io (Blue, 1). Also, the poem is divided into three canticles, or sections, "Inferno," "Purgatorio,' and "Paradisio." For the purposes of this paper, only "Inferno" will be discussed. In "Inferno," Dante the Pilgrim is lost. In his wanderings he encounters three specters, the leopard, the lion, and the she-wolf. Dante runs away from these three foes and is stopped by Virgil, a Roman era poet. Virgil promises to show Dante hell, purgatory, and then Beatrice, a dead friend of Dante's will show him heaven. Dante agrees and they embark. Dante and Virgil see many scary and terrifying sites in hell. He first sees the indecisionists who in life could not make up there mind who in death are forced to run after a flag. They visit Limbo, where those who were not baptized but lived a virtuous life stay. They see various sinners of the lesser circles, Paolo and Francesca, the adulterous lovers and the sinners who committed anger, greed, avarice, and gluttony. They enter the City of Dis and see the heretics in their coffins. They travel down a river of blood where the murderers are kept. As they travel farther down into hell, they see worse sins and even worse punishments for those sins. Finally they see Lucifer. Then, they climb a rock cliff and escape hell.... ... understand these levels, literal, allegorical, moral, and anagogical, one must first understand Dante's symbolism. Works Cited Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri. Trans. Henry F. Cary. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Corp., 1960. Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri. Trans. John Carlyle. New York: Vintage Books, 1959. Blue, Jennifer. "Io Nomenclature Mensa." Io Nomenclature. http://wwwflag.wr.usgs.gov/USGSFlag/Space/nomen/jupiter/ioTOC.html > (30 December 1999). Forman, Roberts, J. "Dante Alighieri." Magill's Survey of World Literature. Vol. 2. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corp., 1993. 500-503. Kashdan, Joanne G. "The Divine Comedy." Masterplots. 1727-1731. Pirandello, Luigi. "The Poetry of Dante." Dante. Ed. John Freccero. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Hamlet :: essays research papers

Hamlet's agonized worrying over his state of existence begins before his first encounter with the ghost. He reports first to his mother that "These but the trappings and suits of woe" (I,ii) do not begin to illumine his inner heartbreak over the death of his father. But it is soon revealed in his first soliloquy that he despairs more over the hasty remarriage of Gertrude than the death of King Hamlet. "...a beast, that wants discourse of reason, / Would have mourn'd longer." (I,ii) Gertrude's apparent disregard of his honorable late father causes his suicidal dejection.When he hears from the ghost of his father's murder, he does indeed vow revenge. However, that revenge never seems to materialize, he thinks and worries but commits no action to fulfill his vow. For some reason, he plays the fool and delays his revenge. Significantly, he presents the play with the scenes altered to mirror the circumstances of Claudius' crime so Hamlet can watch his reactions with his own eyes. "For I mine eyes will rivet to his face, / And after we will both our judgments join / In censure of his seeming." (III,ii) Hamlet's revenge, when it finally occurs, is the result of considerable provocation. Claudius has been exposed by Laertes as a conspiring murderer of Prince Hamlet. Claudius has caused Hamlet to be the death of several people, notably Ophelia and Gertrude. In the end Hamlet kills Claudius, and the ghost is revenged.But truly, whose revenge has taken place? The connection among all of Hamlet's actions is merely himself. He certainly mourns his father, but mainly he feels sorry for himself because he lost his mother and his crown the day his father died. It is possible that he misses Gertrude and Denmark more than his father the king. Also, Hamlet cannot accept the ghost's word for Claudius' guilt, he arranges a situation where he can watch Claudius condemn himself. Again, this is a reaction from his self-centered motives-he requires the feeling of hatred that is only achieved when he is the victim of a crime. Although the play shows him a first-hand picture of Claudius' guilt, it is still not enough provocation for murder. In Hamlet's case, "self-centered" is not a fault but a way of feeling emotions. He is evidently unable to feel the necessary passion when they are related secondhand, he must have the immediate relation to his own psyche.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Similarities between My Mother and Me

I love my mother very much. She is not only a strong woman but also a great mother. My mother always takes care of the children in my family very well and chats with us as a friend; in addition, from the stories in life, she has taught us many valuable lessons. Most of my hobbies and habits are learned from my mother. Therefore, my mother and I have many similarities, such as liking adventure games, gift giving to loved ones on special occasions, and enjoying outdoor activities. Both my mother and I like adventure games. When I was seven years old, she took me and my sister to go to a national park, a huge park with many games. My mother wanted us to join in a game, which has a boat falling from a very high waterfall. While my sister expressed fear, I was curious to try it. I still remember that when our boat reached the top of the waterfall, it suddenly stopped and began to move downward. I was very scared and crying. My mother tried to assure me that everything would be fine. She wanted me to overcome the fear of heights as well as be ready to face all the challenges in life. So far, I am more courageous, and we often spend more time to participate in adventure games. My mother loves to give gifts on special occasions, and so do I. On holidays, we often go shopping to choose a special gift for loved ones. My mother said that a gift is a symbol of love and regard. To me, gift-giving helps bring people closer together. Also, gift-giving is traditional in my country. By gift-giving, we thank loved ones and wish them happiness. It may be valuable items or simply the greeting card, but more importantly is how you send the gifts. I especially love Christmas, when wishes come true. As a child, I still looked forward to receiving gifts from Santa. Now I can understand their meaning, and I would like to bring joy and happiness for everyone. Both of us enjoy outdoor activities. Last Sunday, my family spent time together at the Silverwood Lake. While my aunties and my mom were doing barbeques, my cousins and I built some tends which was my favorite work. After lunch, we decided to go hiking upward a hill. It was so windy. Unfortunately, my mother forgot to bring her overcoat, so she could not go too far away. How absent-minded was she! Anyway, we still had a lot of fun. My mom often tell me that enjoying Mother Nature can be serene, and camping can be economical, build family spirit. I personally think that getting outdoors benefits everything from improved eyesight to more brain function through being more creative. So, we have shared enjoying this activity more 10 years. In conclusion, I love my mom for the good values she has given me. Because of this, we are similar in liking adventure games, gift giving to loved ones on special occasions, and enjoying outdoor activities.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Congenial vs. Genial

Congenial vs. Genial â€Å"Congenial† vs. â€Å"Genial† â€Å"Congenial† vs. â€Å"Genial† By Mark Nichol What’s the difference between congenial and genial? They both derive from that Latin term that also developed into genius, but their meanings are mostly distinct. Genial means â€Å"friendly† or â€Å"sympathetic,† or â€Å"mild†; it also describes someone who displays or is marked by genius, but that is a rare usage. Genial can refer to a person (â€Å"She has a genial personality†) or to an inanimate object or phenomenon (â€Å"The weather was genial yesterday†). Although congenial can be synonymous with genial, the connotation is usually one of having a pleasant and/or sociable attitude (â€Å"He is a congenial host†) or being harmonious or of a kindred spirit (â€Å"Their congenial interest in the matter may help them cooperate†). Writers must take care not to introduce an extraneous letter to produce one of two words that, though distantly related to genial and congenial, have nothing to do with the terms or with each other: Genital refers to the sexual organs, and congenital usually refers to diseases or unhealthy psychological features. A congenital physical condition is one that dates or exists from birth or is acquired during gestation and not through heredity; one can also describe someone as having a congenital fear of or obsession about something. People are also sometimes described as being congenital in some aspect of their nature for example, a congenital liar is someone who is habitually deceitful. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:The Royal Order of Adjectives 40 Fish IdiomsPersonification vs. Anthropomorphism

Monday, October 21, 2019

Jahind Davis Essays - Physics, Electromagnetism, Chemistry

Jahind Davis Essays - Physics, Electromagnetism, Chemistry Jahind Davis Joseph John Thomson was born in 1856 in Cheetham Hill, Manchester, England. His mother, Emma Swindells, came from a local textile family. His father, Joseph James Thomson, ran an antiquarian bookshop founded by a great-grandfather. He had a brother two years younger than him, Frederick Vernon Thomson. His early education was in small private schools where he demonstrated great talent and interest in science. In 1870 he was admitted to Owens College at the unusually young age of 14. His parents planned to enroll him as an apprentice engineer to Sharp- Stewart & Co, a locomotive manufacturer, but these plans were cut short when his father died in 1873. He moved on to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1876. In 1880, he obtained his BA in mathematics (Second Wrangler and 2nd Smith's Prize) and MA (with Adams Prize) in 1883. In 1884 he became Cavendish Professor of Physics. One of his students was Ernest Rutherford, who later succeeded him in the post. In 1890 he married Rose Elisabeth Paget, daughter of Sir George Edward Paget, KCB, a physician and then Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge. They had one son, George Paget Thomson, and one daughter, Joan Paget Thomson. One of Thomson's greatest contributions to modern science was in his role as a highly gifted teacher: seven of his research assistants and his son won Nobel Prizes in physics. His son won the Nobel Prize in 1937 for proving the wavelike properties of electrons. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1906, "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases." He was knighted in 1908 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1912. In 1914 he gave the Romanes Lecture in Oxford on "The atomic theory". In 1918 he became Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he remained until his death. He died on 30 August 1940 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to Sir Isaac Newton. Thomson was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 12 June 1884 and was President of the Royal Society from 1915 to 1920. (1) J.J. Thomson's Atomic Model and Theory Thomson discovered the electron in the year 1897. His work put forward a new theory, that atom was made up of small particles.Thus he discovered the electrons. He proved his theory using the cathode ray tube. Scientists had already done many experiments to find the structure of the atom. They passed an electric current through a vacuum tube. They saw a light glowing inside the tube. It travelled in a straight line. They could not explain the phenomenon. Thomson did more experiments on the cathode tube. He placed two electric plates on its path. One was positively charged. The other was negatively charged. The glowing light bent towards the positively charged plate.and found that the glowing materials bent towards the positively charged plate. He found out that the glowing light were smaller particles. They were smaller than the atom. Thus Thomson found the particle called electron. Thus J.J.Thomson's atomic theory was found. Thomson suggested that the electrons came out ofthe trace gas that was inside the cathode tube. Thus a new theory that atoms were made of tiny particles surfaced. Thomson discovered the electrons and it was proved that atoms were made up of protons, electrons and neutrons. Thus Thomson proved that the atom was divisible. Since the atom was neutral, Thomson suggested that the negatively charged electron equalled the positively charged proton and neutrons had no charges.Thomson suggested to consider the atom as a sphere. It has positively charged particles. The positively charged particles is surrounded by the negatively charged electons. The electrons were placed there due to electrostatic forces. (2) What is a Cathode Ray Tube? Even without consciously realizing it, most of us are already aware of what a cathode ray tube is. Look at any glowing neon sign or any 'old-fashioned' television set, and you are looking at the modern descendants of the cathode ray tube. Physicists in the 19th century found out that if they constructed a glass tube with wires inserted in both ends, and pumped out as much of the air as

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The 19th Amendment essays

The 19th Amendment essays Subsequent to the Revolution for freedom, Americans detained a sense of belonging and individuality. The document not to forget the ladies, which calculated each, slave as three-fifths an individual, entirely overlooked women. Comparable to Black people, women were well thought-out as sub-human. Women were looked upon as second-rate to men. The lack of knowledge apprehended by Americans, portrayed logic of displeasure amongst the female population and began the suffragist movements. Women began to recognize that they needed to acquire their efforts on the Constitutional Amendment that would assure women equal rights in a male-dominated society. The Equal Rights Amendment would consequent in a momentous alter within American Society as well as endeavor to terminate the prejudice women were forced to suffer. In the face of massive evidence of gender-based discrimination and the malfunction of guarantees within the Fourteenth Amendment for Women, fumed for a Federal Equal Rights Amendme nt in 1972. The lengthly battle of the Equal Rights Amendment approval, jointly in Congress and amongst Americans, created a distinctive partition amongst the US population. Even though white males enhanced their status amongst North American society, women were still portrayed as inferior to men. The womans rights movement began, and formed outspoken dispute by feminists. In 1923, the ERA was first proposed to be included in the United States Constitution, it declared: Equality of rights should not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex. Women therefore stipulated equal representation in society. Nevertheless, they did not realize the degree of conflict, which would arise. Men believed that women were inferior oppose to themselves. They to a great extent strained that, the womans role was to merely accept the roles which American men assigned according to their...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Queer critiques of gay marriage Annotated Bibliography

Queer critiques of gay marriage - Annotated Bibliography Example In the article, the community notes that the number of homosexuals has grown despite the widespread negativity the members face. The second article adopts an equally critical stand as it investigates the cost of achieving equality for the LGBT community. The author of the article understands the society’s skewed and skeptic approach to homosexuality despite the growing number of gays and lesbians in the society. In constructing their articles, the respective authors uphold some of the basic guidelines of writing. The make essential citations thereby enhancing the authority of the claims they make. In retrospect, the two articles are valid reports that make good arguments. Furthermore, they are good sources owing to the authors’ ability to present their facts systematically and attempt to provide evidence by citing the works appropriately. The LGBT community in the country sought to develop a new strategic vision to help redirect their future endeavors. The new vision seeks to safeguard immense economic benefits for gays, lesbians, transgender and bisexuals in the country. The article seeks to safeguard the acceptance, respect and recognition for members of the community in every feature of the society and numerous states within the country. In justifying their new vision, the community explains a number of intricate features of the society including the diversity in families and households as the number of homosexuals grow throughout the country. The community argues that the increase in its size implies that a greater number of people continue to face economic stress. The community uses its experience and experience on the issue by analyzing official reports in coming up with the blueprint. Despite such attempts, the article lacks statistical proof of the issues it raises a feature that make it inflammatory. The article vouches for equality for the LGBT community. The

Friday, October 18, 2019

Tobacco Horror Show Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Tobacco Horror Show - Essay Example Throughout the article, an attempt has been made to conclude which of the means, literal or visual, is most effective when it comes to delivering ‘the right’ information. The question is, what is more important, the tobacco companies business that will be affected or public health that is always put on the line due to their tobacco production and products? The answer is simple and in my opinion, a smoker needs to be conveyed a message, in a way, that it actually delivers neutralized related aspects such as bad lungs, cancerous cause, short breath, addiction and eventually a shorter span of life. Moreover, a literal message might not have the same effect as compared to the one that is visually displayed as it can be adequate for the smoker to develop the right understanding. The motive should be to educate smokers and to help them overcome the smoking practice or addiction. Displaying images that depict the internal and overall destruction of a human body will make a smok er think twice. Works cited Fish, Stanley. "The Tobacco Horror Show."Â  New York Times. 14 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. . The Age of the Superfluous Worker America’s survival in the global economy today is questioned as the unemployment ratio has consistently climbed, as observed. As the situation worsens the estimated jobless ratio has now hiked to almost 15% of the overall work force. These statistics include the type that has now given up their search for work, the superfluous workers. These issues, when combined, severely contribute to the ever-increasing surplus pool. If present-day capitalism continues to eliminate a greater number of jobs as compared to what it creates, soon, along with the addition to surplus labor, majority of workers will eventually turn into superfluous workers. If a considerable proportion is continued to be expelled from within the American work force, soon America will transform into a disturbed society. This age has rightly been named ‘ the age of the superfluous worker’. Where there are less job opportunities for every American citizen, most of them transform into superfluous workers. According to my point of view, government needs to focus more on creating jobs and providing earning opportunities to its own people. If unemployment continues to climb heights, the youth is estimated to reach the ‘surplus state’ at an early age. If out-sourcing offices to lower waged countries continues, an ongoing addition to superfluous workers is never likely to halt. Other than the government concentrating more on creating jobs, employers also need to play a considerable role. They need to understand the fact that if they continue to outsource businesses, soon a time will come when the nation’s youth will be mentally challenged. Works cited Fish, Stanley. "The Age of the Superfluous Worker."Â  The New York Times. 14 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. . Moving Beyond Civil Rights Initially, civil rights mad e America a united and fair nation yet in the present, civil rights have failed to bring about any changes in the lives of many minorities, women and the unemployed. Due to the initial successful implementation of civil rights laws, Americans perceive every issue of social injustice

Marital relationship of Stanley and Stella in Streetcar Named Desire Essay

Marital relationship of Stanley and Stella in Streetcar Named Desire (film) - Essay Example Evidence can be sought in the play in that, firstly, Stanley opts to stun the evil approaches from Blanche for his wife Stella in a dramatic unfolding that nothing but reality of love can explain. It appears that Stanley’s character should seemingly have allowed him to fall prey to Blanche’s fabrications but instead settles for a sober decision to remain faithful to his wife. This is despite the fact that Stanley sends contradictory signals of abuse and torture against his wife. It is therefore clear that evil desires fail severally when they rise against goodness. Stella cares for her husband when she talks to him softly, â€Å"...where are you going...,† (123HelpMe.com). Secondly, the fact that Stella manages to overcome her adversaries in the hands of her brutal husband and opts to stay in their marriage is indication of what good can achieve. It is evident that Stanley assaults severally to the extent that she runs for her safety yet she maintains her position in the relationship. Stella affords to stay in such a relationship due to the strength upright intentions have to surmount evil (Sparknotes.com). Thirdly, Stella’s strong character presents her in a position to tolerate the difficulties presented to her by her husband and her sister like any strong woman would do. Stella protects her husband by rejecting any external force likely to cripple their marriage, however implicating it might be. The relationship emerges victorious in turbulent unfaithful moments since Stella chooses to forgive her unfaithful husband and allow good trample over evil. "Come to think of it-maybe you wouldnt be bad to-interfere with..." (Galloway, 1). In conclusion, it is difficult to state how Blanche’s and Stanley’s characters feature in a romantic relationship, if not to indicate how evil can permeate into a

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Media Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Media - Research Paper Example Despite the conventional assumption that social media suited the Millennial Generation, it is evident that Baby boomers have adopted social media as the contemporary form of communication. The question relating to the means in which social media has shaped an individual’s life shares almost similar answers from everyone who utilizes social media. As such, it is evident that social media has shortened communication channels, making it easier to reach out to people at low costs regardless of the physical distance. For instance, communicating abroad through mobile networks require additional charges unlike social media whereby all that is needed is a reliable internet connection. The reduced costs of communication that accompany social media have enhanced social interaction among peers. As such, social media has removed some of the inherent barriers to effective communication among individuals who could not afford the extra costs of communicating with people abroad. Social media has been embraced in the business world to enhance the process of establishing a global market. As such, various social media play different role in ensuring that the intended message is communicated as desired. For instance, Facebook and Twitter allow users to communicate in short messages also termed as â€Å"Micro blogs.† On the other hand, Instagram allows users to communicate in form of picture messages. LinkedIn takes a different approach and creates a platform for work professionals to share their profiles. As such, every aspect of social media is differentiated to ensure that the user needs are met without overlapping. The functions of different social media ensure that the services offered are all round, making it a comprehensive communication platform. Social media, being a comprehensive communication platform, has myriad drawbacks besides boasting of numerous benefits. The most evident benefit of social media is

Discussion Topics for Management Course - United States Essay

Discussion Topics for Management Course - United States - Essay Example In this case, employees feel motivated and increase their dedication business practices, something that enhances its chances of success and quality outcomes. It is important for business executives to understand that risk and uncertainty are not actually similar. Uncertainty often concerns possible results and outcomes, which are not known to the business managers. On the other hand, risks can be described as certain kinds of uncertainties that involve actual probabilities of loss for various outcomes (Ferrell & Fraedrich, 2005). In this case, it is evident that situations involving risks can be accounted for easily as compared to those involving uncertainties. The process of making decisions based on risky conditions has to seek, where possible to provide a definite identification of risks, quantifying and absorbing them. In this case, business executives have to understand that the quantity of a risk is often equivalent to the total of all the probabilities relating to the particular risky outcome, alongside the expected loss from the outcome. From the foregone discussion it is evident that business managers are better placed to account for the management outcomes that are made under risky situations that those involving certainties. One of the most important aspects of a business’ management decision-making process is accounting for the outcomes. Accountability, in this case is needed in the process of making assessments and evaluations, which are important in the growth and development stages of the business (Ferrell & Fraedrich, 2005). Business managers are expected to avoid uncertainty situations in the business, this is because, they often lead to many losses in the management process. Risky situations can often bring positive outcomes depending on the effectiveness of the decisions made in the business. This is the reason why business managers that make effective decisions over

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Media Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Media - Research Paper Example Despite the conventional assumption that social media suited the Millennial Generation, it is evident that Baby boomers have adopted social media as the contemporary form of communication. The question relating to the means in which social media has shaped an individual’s life shares almost similar answers from everyone who utilizes social media. As such, it is evident that social media has shortened communication channels, making it easier to reach out to people at low costs regardless of the physical distance. For instance, communicating abroad through mobile networks require additional charges unlike social media whereby all that is needed is a reliable internet connection. The reduced costs of communication that accompany social media have enhanced social interaction among peers. As such, social media has removed some of the inherent barriers to effective communication among individuals who could not afford the extra costs of communicating with people abroad. Social media has been embraced in the business world to enhance the process of establishing a global market. As such, various social media play different role in ensuring that the intended message is communicated as desired. For instance, Facebook and Twitter allow users to communicate in short messages also termed as â€Å"Micro blogs.† On the other hand, Instagram allows users to communicate in form of picture messages. LinkedIn takes a different approach and creates a platform for work professionals to share their profiles. As such, every aspect of social media is differentiated to ensure that the user needs are met without overlapping. The functions of different social media ensure that the services offered are all round, making it a comprehensive communication platform. Social media, being a comprehensive communication platform, has myriad drawbacks besides boasting of numerous benefits. The most evident benefit of social media is

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Prince Family Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Prince Family Paper - Essay Example The series highlight different ethos that forms part of the lives of the characters. Firstly, the series highlights the culture of discipline and obedience. According to the series, children are expected to respect people who are older than they are. In addition, parents have the obligation to guide their children in righteous ways. This ethos enables the series to connect with reality. Pathos outlined in the series includes words or actions hat have an emotional appeal. For instance, Michael is greatly moved as he watches the prince family help him fix his car after he was involved in a minor accident. The argument end the way it does purposefully. Although the argument ends with suspense making it appear incomplete, the producer intends to create suspense in the mind of his audience. Through this creation, it is certain that the audience will always be looking forward for the next creation or production. On the other hand, the ending enables the produce to create a series of thought in his

Kings Ghost In Hamlet Essay Example for Free

Kings Ghost In Hamlet Essay During Shakespeares lifetime people were, in general, more religiously devout and more likely to believe in spirits and ghosts. Spirits could be messengers from heaven or evil in nature. This is one reason Hamlet so readily believed his friends when they told him they had seen his fathers ghost; he was also more likely to believe their story because his friend Horatio told it, and he is an intellectual. However, when Hamlet is all too willing to follow his fathers ghost, his friends, Marcellus and Horatio, are very reluctant to follow. Marcellus is reluctant to follow because he is afraid of the ghost. Most people are afraid of the unknown; this would include soldiers, who are used to fighting until the enemy is killed. Marcellus is dealing with a ghost, which he cannot defeat it with his partisan (though he hopelessly offers it), and this scares him. Marcellus is a soldier who is guarding Elsinore, and the ghost is wearing the armor that he wore to defend his land against Fortinbras, the old king of Norway. Another soldier, Bernardo, says, This portentous figure comes armed through our watch like the king that was and is the question of these wars. (Act I, p. 8) When Horatio speaks to the ghost he says, If thou art privy to thy countrys fate, Which, happily, foreknowing may avoid, O, speak! (Act I, p. 9) Marcellus and Bernardo believe it is an ominous sign and that perhaps the ghost has come with a warning about an imminent invasion; one that they would have to defend the castle against. Hamlet also thinks something must be wrong if his fathers ghost is in armor. Marcellus is also afraid of the ghost because it leaves just as the cock crows to signal sunrise. He knows that spirits, including evil ones, cannot bewitch during the day time and he is unsure yet weather the ghosts intentions are good or evil, so he does not want anyone to follow it. Marcellus goes so far as to restrain Hamlet when he tries to follow his fathers ghost. Horatio is also reluctant to follow the ghost because he is unsure of its intentions. He is especially weary because he tried twice to speak with the ghost and it would not answer him, it apparently only wants to speak with Hamlet alone. He warns Hamlet that the ghost might convince him to act  without reason and drive him mad. He tells Hamlet not to follow the ghost because it could lead him off a cliff into the ocean. Despite his friends warnings, Hamlet decides to follow his fathers ghost and receive its message. Though Marcellus and Horatio were reluctant, they eventually follow, catching up to Hamlet after he has spoken with the ghost.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Problems That Face Asians In English Pronunciation English Language Essay

Problems That Face Asians In English Pronunciation English Language Essay Speaking regarded as the most important and difficult micro-skill of the four skills in foreign language learning. Most adult non-native students of English in the UK particularly Asian students face a lot of difficulties when they speak English and they sometimes get frustrated when they could not understand or be understand by native speakers of English. Therefore, they encounter the same problems that confront any students studying in a foreign culture, such as grammar, pronunciation, listening comprehension and different cultures. Also, it is difficult for them to adjust to the English language especially when they speak it. They may have difficulty understanding class lecture, making them feel reluctant to participate in class discussion, seminars and tutorials. This essay will first explain and evaluate only one issue that face adult Asian students in UK when they speak English which is English pronunciation. Therefore, pronunciation is a difficult aspect in language learning f or adult Asian students which lead to real barriers to communication and can contribute to motivation with native English speakers. This essay also will examine what are the most frequent difficulties encountered them in English pronunciation, the factors that affecting the pronunciation of non native students of English , some solutions to surmount the difficulties of mispronunciation among Asian adult students and finally it will throw some light on the implications of language teaching. Literature review: Teachers of English as a FL or a L2 know so well how important pronunciation is. Nevertheless, sometimes it has been obvious that a teacher has been paid little attention to the students pronunciation in the process of second language learning and teaching. Celce Goodain(1991) states that over the past years, there have been different views about the value of teaching pronunciation in language teaching and they reported that the cognitive approach and grammar translation reading based method which used by teachers attach no importance to pronunciation. However, in the direct approach, pronunciation is considered important. In addition, Jack and William (2002) reported that pronunciation is no longer considered as an indispensable aspect in a foreign language teaching. According to Beebe (1984,51), `Most current textbooks in English as a second language either ignore the teaching of pronunciation or rely primarily on old stand-bys-to teach non-native learners to pronounce English accurately. Trammell (1993) also indicates that instruction in pronunciation has been deemphasised due to the new teaching methods like the Communicative Approach. Communication is an important need of in daily life and it should be the primary purpose of language learning and teaching . Therefore, teaching English speaking to non-native students of English how to speak English accurately and fluently with native speakers of English is one of the general objectives of the foreign language teaching. According to Yule (2006: 33), language is primarily speech and it is more basic to language than the written form. Knowles (1987) argue that written language is permanent and looks imperfect version of the spoken language whereas spoken Language is more elusive. It is clear that we all speak and hear the sounds spoken in our environment first before we write or read. For instance, child before goes to school, he will speak before write because he will acquire his first Language from his family when he imitates what they said. It is seem that as long as one can communicate with others in the second language, everything is fine but the questions is ,how can communicate with people fluently if your pronunciation is incorrect? Beebe (1984) insists that pronunciation always affect what we communicate and how well we communicate it, and therefore it should be take seriously. Weeren Theunissen(1987: 109) pointed out: Firstly, good pronunciation allows one to be better understood. It gives the speakers oral production a certain redundancy. And this can help to get a message across more effectively as a learning objective because of it is high pay off. The number of sound, sound clusters and intonation pattern in a Language is finite, as is the alphabet. Once the system has been mastered, it can be used, thus giving it fundamentally an infinite scope. Thirdly, a deviant pronunciation means that one is immediately marked as non-native abroad. Harmer (2007) suggests that if students want to be able to speak fluently in English, they need to be able pronounce phonemes correctly and appropriate stress and intonation. Pronunciations of students need to be good enough to communicate the message so that it is understood by other speakers of English. Therefore, most Asian adult students have difficulties to pronounce words or sentences correctly which can be a major cause of misunderstandings. They have difficulties in recognize sound of English, word stress( which part of a word are more heavily stressed that is spoken louder and longer), sentence stress( which part of a sentence can be more heavily stressed), sounds in connected speech( how to link the sounds together in a sentence),and finally in intonation(how our voice rises and falls at a certain point of the sentence).From my own experience as a teacher in a secondary school, most students have potential pronunciation problems when they speak English. They have problem wi th stress and intonation that they unable to put the right emphasis on the right part of the word. Also they have problems with vowels bends and consonants blends as well. For example, sounds likeea and ou can be confusing them because when they listen to the audio recordings, it can be very difficult for them to pick up the subtle blends of two or more vowels. Additionally, In consonants blends, they have problem with th sound because they are not accustomed to putting t and h together to form th sound to reproduce. It is clear that pronunciation is so difficult to learn. The first language of most overseas students effect on learning the second language. Problems that face Asian students in English pronunciation: Most Asian adult students work and study hard to become very fluent in English. However, there are many different varieties of spoken English and non-native students may have achieved fluency such as knowing correct grammar and knowing a large numbers of vocabulary especially when they have been taught by non-native speakers but they have a non-standard accent which make the use of English difficult for native speakers of English to understand. Vowels Celce-Murcia, Brinton and Goodwin (1996) states there are different types of vowel sounds in English pronunciation. Firstly, received pronunciation. It has twelve monophthongs (single or pure vowels).Secondly, eight diphthongs (double vowels) and two thriphthongs (triple vowels).therefore, some of in Asian students like Arabices , Japanese and Chinese have fewer vowels in their first Language which lead to have problems with hearing and pronouncing these distinctions of vowel sounds. For example, Japanese language has only 5 vowels /i/,/e/,/a/,/É‘/,/o/. According to, Kenworthy(1987) there are five vowels letters which are (a, e, i, o, u) .They map to 13 different sounds. For instance, the letter is pronounced differently in the words: boat, boot, out and hot. This is one of the problems that encountered by Asian adult students in pronunciation subject. They have problem with the /a/ sound (e.g. at) because it is not easy for them to hear and pronounce this sound. Also, they could not differentiate between the long sound/a/ and the sound/e/ (e.g. paper-pepper).They also have problems in differentiating between the long/e/ and the short /i/ (e.g. eat-it). Furthermore, diphthongs in English are difficult to learn and definitely tribal markers in English. .They are also very easy for native speakers of English to identify but not easy for non-native speakers of English. So, speech sounds which involve a slide from one vowel to another is the biggest problem which face Asian adult students when they speak English. For example, theou sound in the word out is a blend of /ah/ and /oo/. Several of diphthongs are quiet subtle .For instant the long /ee/ sound in the words feel and fear is a blend of /ee/ and /ah/ as (fee-ah). Celce-Murcia , Brinton and Goodwin ( 1996 ) 2- Consonants Kota(2006) stats that English consonants are less difficult than vowels. Most languages have the sounds which are represented by the letters d, t, s, and z .Nevertheless, some languages do not use certain consonants which can be difficult for non-native speakers of English. For examples, the r and l sounds are not used by Japanese and Korean native speakers. Then, the so- called ra-la distinction is especially difficult for them. They have also difficulty to distinguish between /b/ and /v/ sounds. The /th/ sound is not simply to use it in the naÃÆ' ¯ve language. It can be difficult for Vietnamese students. Therefore, they substitue a /zh/ instead of /th/ as in: /zh/ese problems may be caused by pollution. Also, he adds that there are more consonants in English than in Japanese language .Therefore, the /f/, /v/ /o/, A/, /s/,/3/,/ts/,/d3/ do not exist in the Japanese consonantal system. In addition, Munro((1993) states that some Arabic language do not make use of separate sounds for /b/ and/p/.then, they have difficulty to distinguishing and pronouncing b and p sounds as in : do not bark while I park the van. The difference is quite subtle. They may confuse z withj .These problems cause misunderstanding by native English speakers when they communicate with each other From my own experience as a Libyan student at Leicester University in the UK, I had a car accident in university road because the weather was slippery and snowing which cause that the brake of my car was out of the control. After that the police came to me and asked me some questions about the accident. I said to him I feel slippery. The problem here, the police wrote in the report driver feel asleep but he did not write what I said I feel slippery .I think that was a misunderstanding between the police and me because of my language. He misunderstand me because of his linguistic constraints particularly his heavily -accented English. Other problems which face Asian adult students, is dropping medical stopped consonants. Some of them tend o drop stopped consonants such as, sounds /p/ and /k/ from the middle of poly syllabic words. For example, Chinese students tend to drop the difficult c from the word of success. They say/ suhsess/.Also, some native speaker of English pronounce the word accessory as/ assess or ee/ instead of / ack-sess-or-ee/.(Dalton,1994) Syllable structure: According to Joanna Heather (2003), English allows for in syllable structure a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and four consonants after the vowel as in the words straw and glimpsed. Therefore, the structure of syllabus cause issues for speakers of many languages. For instance, Japanese students usually try to in between the consonants (e.g. desk-/desks/) becomes desukusu or in the word milk shake / mIlk ʃeIk/ becomes mirukushȆ¡ku.Kota(2006) there are two types of syllable in English which are open syllables( CV) and closed syllables( CCCVCC).On the other hand, Japanese only permit one type of syllable which is open syllable. For example, Word meaning syllable Ke hair CV Kare boyfriend CVCV So, Words in Japanese do not end with consonants and it Japanese does not allow both initial and final consonants. Knowles (1987) maintains that some Asian students who first languages end in vowels, they often tend to make all English words end in vowels. For example, they pronounce the word make as /meIkÉâ„ ¢ / instead of/ meIk/. Also, they sometimes find it is so complicated when native speakers of English may drop consonants in the more complex blends (e.g. the word months, they say /mɆ¦nÉ µs/ instead of / mɆ¦nos/. 4-Rhythm and Cadence: Brown (2001: 121) pointed out that cadence is the pattern of stresses within a sentence and rhythm refers to the beat syllabus. If each one were marked by tapping fingers on a desk: rat a-tat-tat-tat TAT of this. He adds that the main issue that trips up Asian adult students that British English are stress timed whereas most Asian languages are syllable timed. Stressed syllables are roughly equidistant in time and they like the sound of the mechanical tat-tat-tat-tat of gun machine with equal length to each syllable. However, native English speakers stretch syllables at the same time like putting emphasis on some syllables and not others. For instance,hi. Wonderful to see u again .They say this sentence like this hiiiii woooood fl to seeeeeee yu agaiaiainn. This mean, won- see- gain is both emphasized and lengthened but other syllabuses in the sentence are so lightly and shortened spoken. According to Kota (2006), stress time in English is one of the problem that encounter Asian students particularly for Singaporeans students. They speak in the way which is very difficult for English speakers to understand. 5- Intonation Roach, (2002: 50) defines intonation as the rising or falling pitch of the voice while pronouncing words or syllables. He believes that intonation enables speakers to express their emotions and attitudes when they speak. The most problematic area of pronunciation for most Asian students is intonation. They find it extremely difficult to hear tunes or identify the different patterns of rising and falling tones. Therefore, some Asian languages have less pitch variation than English especially Japanese language.They use pith changes to mark stress on the word level which result the so-called monotonous intonation. Wong(1987) suggests that English as a tonal language(not using tones).We can understand the words in isolation but if we put them together in sentences, the meaning of the sentence may change by a shift in tone. For example, Are you going to the library?(low-then-high on word library) but if u wondered which of two persons agreed to get the list of books, the same words would have a different emphasis Are you going to the library?, and the tone for you would be rather deep which is different from the first question. Jack and Willy (2002) introduce other problems in English pronunciation .Firstly, difference between spelling and sounds. There are lots of words in English language which have silent letters. Therefore, most Asian students specifically Pakistani students pronounce these silent letters unknowingly which make them mispronounce the words. For example, knowledge, kneel .These two word have k silent letter which they should not pronounce it at all. Secondly, multiple sounds of the same letters are also one of the issues that encounter Asian adult students. This mean there are many letters and combinations of letters which produce numerous sounds at different place. For instance, the letter c produces two sounds like s and k (e.g. circle, car) and also ch letter produce three sounds as ch,k andsh. Factors affecting the English pronunciation of Asian students: The effect of native language: Every language in the world has different accent and varsities is true that non native speakers speak the target language in a different way. Sometimes, they speak highly different than native speakers of English do. Avery Ehrlich (1987:9) calls the foreign accent the nature of which is determined to a large extended by a learners native language. Then, native language of speaker may influence on the pronunciation of the target language. Jack and Willy(2002: 184) states that the way we speak is a part of our identity ,that is, phonemic differences between language cause, a target language which will be spoken with a foreign language. Some Asian students specifically Turkish adult students have difficulty in some English sounds or words that are not exist in their first language. For example, the sounds/ÃÆ' °/ and / ÆÅ ¸/ are not exist in Turkish language which lead Turkish students to face difficulty to pronounce these sounds when they speak English. So they produce these sou nds under the influence of their first language. Then, the influence of native language is inevitable. 2-The factor of age: This is the most important factor in learning English pronunciation. If someone wants to pronounce a foreign language with a native like accent, he/she should start to learn it during his/her childhood. For example, children who start learn English language in foreign language speaking people environment. As a result, they have more advantage than the children who learn the second language in their motherlands. Krashen (1988) mentions that people who expose their second language during childhood, they achieve higher foreign language proficiency than those who beginning as adults. It seems that age is the main factor which effect on adults English pronunciation. They are difficult for them to learn English language after puberty. Therefore, it is better to learning it in short run and should be started in puberty. Phonetic Ability: According to Jack and Willy (2002) pointed out that some people who have a good ear, they have the ability to discriminate between the two sounds accurately. So, learners phonetics ability affects the development of their pronunciation. Kenworthy(1987) believes that the influence of age is an efficient factor for phonetics ability. Because it is so difficult for adult students to have more ability in pronunciation than immigrants children who start their learning process in a second language speaking environment. 3-The Amount Exposure: Many non native speakers have not opportunity to practice the English language in their motherlands. English also do not only used in the classroom. If the learners live in an English- speaking country, the learners will have opportunities to listen and speak with native speakers of English. Conversely, there will no advantage for learners if they live in a non English speaking country. Kenworthy (1987) insists that exposure can be a contributory factor but it is not necessary factor for developing adult learners pronunciation. Learners should make use of it is opportunities, if they are aware of the necessity of being exposed to the second language. If the learners do that, they will be more successful in case of improving their pronunciation. 5- Personality and Attitude This factor affect the pronunciation of most Asian adult students in a bad way if the learners have negative attitudes for the English environment .learners or they are introverted students. From my own experience as a student in the UK, I am one of the students who are introverted or shy. Therefore, I usually do not take part in classroom activities; seminars and tutorials .Whereas extrovert students have more chance to improve their pronunciation. Brown (2001) states attitude of the students toward the new language have an effective role in pronunciation learning. Also, if the learners have a good attitude for the target culture, they can develop their pronunciation accurately. If the learners have some prejudices on the second language and its society, this event will influence their approach to the language. It is clear that these above factors are effective in the learners pronunciation and also exert much influence on the adult learners. So, teachers play a significant role for helping adult learners to develop their English pronunciation. Also, they should pay attention to the students concern for pronunciation because they are not aware of the way that they speech. Therefore there are lots of methods and types of teaching English pronunciation which help Asian adult students to overcome the difficulties of it. They will also help them to acquire an accurate pronunciation and improve their speech. Solutions to surmount the difficulties of mispronunciation among Asian adult students:- Teaching pronunciation:- Jigsaw: Pennington (1996) maintains that jigsaw is a form of information gap. Students work in pairs or small group to exchange their information. They try to combine words with each other to create sentences. These sentences consist of words that the learners have difficulty to pronounce these words. For example, in the word rise which has the letters s that they must pronounce it as z and producing /raIz/ e.g. I was surprised that the raisings rise! B-Tongue Twister: This kind of activity helps adult Asian students to say difficult words and phrases so quickly. Celce-Murcia (1987:55) stress that there is a little transfer from practice to natural information. But, if it is needed and necessary, they can be used. Example: Paul piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. 2-Drilling Techniques There are lots of drills which helps adult Asian students to improve their English pronunciation. They are very useful for teaching the correct pronunciation of the words and sentences. A- Saturation drill Wong (1987) proposed it is vey suitable for all position of the problematic sound. For instance, the sound /s/ as a problem sound. It can be drilled in its three positions Initial media final See leasing peace Seem clinic purse Substitution drill Dalton (1994) says that this drill can be applied by substituting any sound instead of other sound. For instance,/t/ sound instead of /ÃŽÂ ¸/ and /d/ in place of /ÃÆ' °/( e.g. this is thin/tin.) It is clear that there are other ways helps learners to overcome difficulties of pronunciation .First, media which give to the students positive advantage especially when they watch standard English news channel like BBC. Second, is practice. Students should practise English with native speaker or non native speakers of English to improve their English speaking Conclusion: To sum up, teaching pronunciation is one of the important areas of foreign language teaching. Most overseas students especially Asian adult students encounter troubles when they try to communicate with native speakers of English. Then, communication should be the primary purpose of language learning and teaching. One crucial part of effective communication for Asian adult students to grasp is: comfortably intelligible pronunciation. They have certain difficulties such as produce correct sound and recognition of English sounds, understanding of stress and intonation, difference between spelling and sounds and other problems. Therefore, it should be studied in the early age (from puberty) to eliminate these problems and also to overcome the negative influence from the first language interference. Teachers must be a ware of the techniques which help students improve their pronunciation according to their age, ability, needs, attitudes and expectations. Count words (3200) Classroom Implications: Appendix I: Generally, pronunciation is really complicated process in foreign language teaching. There are some of sounds which have similar sounds but have different meanings. This can be causing much confusion to the learners. Therefore, most ESL students have problem with English pronunciation when they speak English. From my own experience as a teacher in Libyan secondary school, I used several ways to teach pronunciation which can be benefit all learners. Firstly, introducing phonemes .because the biggest problem that faces them is the distinguage between sounds. For example, in the words fat, mat, cat, sat, the letters /f/, /m/, /c/, /s/ are the phonemes which are the beginning letters of these words. Phoneme makes the distinct difference between similar words. After that, students listen and repeat these different sounds and then identify them. For the best result, I introduce phoneme in pairs. (e.g. the /f/ and/v/ sounds).They listen and speak them and also repeat simple words like( fat- vat)Secondly, practicing phonemes for making the sound accurately. I drew pronunciation diagrams on the blackboard because they help them to know how to hold the tongue and lips. For example, the sound /th/ in #the word this and thank. Anxiety is usually common among students when they lean pronunciation. Then, I usually use some verbal games such as, handclap rhythms and jazz charts which can help them to improve their speaking and relieve much of pressure. Appendix II: Students listen to audio recordings and they practice what they hear because recordings get them attuned to stress, intonation, pitch and phonological distinctions. For example: Listen and say what word you hear: is it from column (a) or column (b)? Some words are unusual. a b 1 Port Bought 2 Pack Back 3 True Drew 4 Fast Vast 5 Thank Than 6 East Easy 7 Please Pleasure 8 Ship Chip 9 Choke joke Appendix III Word stress and intonation Listen and mark the stressed syllable. Daughter- orbit-planet- computer- meaning- handle-homework- hospital derision. 2-Read these sentences and mark the pauses with / and mark the intonation pattern with à ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ and à ¢Ã¢â‚¬  Ã¢â‚¬Å". 1- People who look different from others in some way are interesting. 2- The one who looks bored is my sister. 3- The latest design, with CD player is very expensive. 4-A tidy, conventionally decorated room with everything in its place is boring.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Canadas Economy In 1996 :: essays research papers

Canada's Economy in 1996 To investigate the state of the Canadian economy, it is very useful to track Canada's six major economic goals: economic growth, economic stability, economic efficiency, economic equity, viable balance of payments, and low unemployment. At a given time, Canada is achieving some of these goals while falling behind on some of the others. When taken all into consideration, these goals give an indication of how well Canada has been doing and the stage of the business cycle the Canadian economy is in. In 1996-1997, Canada is in slight recession and is only meeting the goals of economic stability, and viable balance of payments. Canada can be said to be in a period of slight recession because there is a downswing in economic activity. To confirm a true recovery, "an economy must show no growth for two consecutive quarters." However, Canada is not in a true recession because there was a 3.0% growth in the third quarter, compared to 2.2% in the second quarter. Eventhough it is not true recession, the slow growth is a sure sign of a slight one. Low inflation is also is also prevalent and is symptomatic of a weak economy. A low inflation rate of 1.4% in November 1996 does not provide much of an indication for economic growth and expansion. A shrinking positive balance of payments indicates these are tough economic times. A fourth indication of a slight recession is the high unemployment rate. An unemployment rate of 10.0% in November 1996 is definitely not a sign of strong economic recovery. Canada is always trying to work towards the goal of economic growth. Economic growth is the percentage change of GDP over a period of time and is also known as the growth rate. In 1996, Canada's GDP has been increasing slowly since the first quarter. The GDP in the first quarter was 1.8%, then increased to 2.2% in the second quarter, and in the third quarter it rose to 3.0%. In this way, Canada has been experiencing steady growth. This goal is being met because of the increase in consumer spending inspite of the government cutbacks. Consumer spending levels tell producers what to produce, and how much to produce. If consumer spending increases, it gives a signal to the producers to produce more which causes the increasing GDP. The government cutbacks contribute does contribute to lower consumer confidence and, thus, slows the economic growth. Slow, growth causes few jobs to be created as it means a slower rate of expansion of industries. When there is slow growth, few jobs are being created,

Friday, October 11, 2019

Essay --

â€Å"Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today†- Malcolm X After carefully considering my aptitude, interests, the nature of my training and my ultimate professional ambition, I have decided to pursue M.S. in Electrical Engineering specializing in the field of my interest namely- Embedded Systems, ultimately leading to a career in teaching and research. As a statement of purpose of my undergraduate study, I describe here my academic background, my research interests and my career goals. The undergraduate programme at SRM University, Chennai is a well-rounded programme. It not only helped me build a solid foundation of Electronics and Communication Engineering fundamentals, but also helped me develop an overall perspective of the vast field of Electrical Engineering. In the final year I developed a keen interest in the area of Embedded Systems. I substantiated my knowledge of these areas by choosing electives on Linear Integrated Circuits, Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, VLSI Design, Digital Signal Processing, ASIC Des...

EMT/Paramedic Essay

People’s lives often depend on the quick reaction and competent care of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics. EMTs and paramedics provide this vital service as they care for and transport the sick or injured to a medical facility. In an emergency, EMTs and paramedics are typically dispatched by a 911 operator to the scene, where they often work with police and firefighters. while assessing the nature of the patients condition, they try to determine whether the patient has any pre-existing medical conditions. EMT workers work in a group such like one make sures the patient is okay while another drives and etc. At the medical facility, EMTs and paramedics help transfer patients to the emergency department, report their observations and actions to emergency department staff, and may provide additional emergency treatment. After each medical run, they have to document trip, replace used supplies, and check the equipment. EMTs and paramedics also provide transportation for patients from one medical facility to another, particularly if they work for private ambulance services Training: A high school diploma is usually required to enter an emergency medical technician training program Training is offered at progressive levels: EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate, and Paramedic. At the EMT-Basic level, coursework emphasizes emergency skills, such as managing respiratory, trauma, and cardiac emergencies, and patient assessment. Graduates of approved EMT-Basic training programs must pass a written and practical examination administered by the State licensing agency or the NREMT. He program provides instruction and practice in dealing with bleeding, fractures, airway obstruction, cardiac arrest, and emergency childbirth. Students learn how to use and maintain common emergency equipment, such as backboards, suction devices, splints, oxygen delivery systems, and stretchers. At the EMT-Intermediate level, training requirements vary by State. The nationally defined levels, EMT-Intermediate 1985 and EMT-Intermediate 1999, typically require 30 to 350 hours of training based on scope of practice. Students learn advanced skills such the use of advanced airway devices, intravenous fluids, and some medications. The most advanced level of training for this occupation is Paramedic. caregiver  receives training in anatomy and physiology as well as advanced medical skills. Most commonly, the training is conducted in community colleges and technical schools and may result in an associate’s degree. Employment Most career EMTs and paramedics work in metropolitan areas. Volunteer EMTs and paramedics are more common in small cities, towns, and rural areas. About 45 percent worked as employees of ambulance services. About 29 percent worked in local government. Another 20 percent worked in hospitals. Job Outlook Employment of emergency medical technicians and paramedics is expected to grow 9 percent between 2008 and 2018 which is average. As a large segment of the population—aging members of the baby boom generation—becomes more likely to have medical emergencies, demand will increase for EMTs and paramedics. employment of EMTs and paramedics is expected to grow by 33 percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations. Earnings Earnings of EMTs and Paramedics depend on the employment setting and geographic location of their jobs, as well as their training and experience. EMT average salary: $31,061 Paramedic average salary: $38,902 Schooling A High School diploma and completion of a training program is required. Employment Benefits: Choice of wide variety of health plans with family coverage, as well as prescription, dental and eyecare benefits 3 weeks vacation to start *(increases to 5 weeks after 8 years) Excellent pension benefits which include: 5 year pension vesting & full pension benefits after 25 years of service, regardless of age Excellent promotional opportunities Deferred compensation/401K and flexible spending plans.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Cycle of Life and Death Essay

â€Å"Nothing endures but change† (Heraclitus 540-480BC). People are born, only to die again. In a never-ending cycle of life and death, new ideas replace older ones and an evolution of perspectives takes place. Paulle Marshall aptly portrays this cyclical nature through her last line â€Å"she died and I lived† referring to her grandmother. The death is not physical alone. It is the death of old ideologies, dated traditions and disparate acceptance of modernization. In a vivid recollection of her grandmother Da-Duh’s reluctance to accept change during Paulle’s childhood visit, she narrates how the old lady loathes urbanity and finds delectation in her little island of natural beauty. The interactions that the narrator has with her grandmother remind us of the passage of time between generations. The demise of Da-Duh signifies the change that is inevitable, the transition from the old to the new. Symbolism Paulle Marshall’s work is replete with a richness of literary devices like symbolism, imagery and metaphors. Describing the foreboding character of death, the narrator feels that the planes that bring death to the little village are â€Å"swooping and screaming†¦monstrous birds†. The sugarcanes that grow in the village are Da-Duh’s delight and also the reason for the exploitation in the village. The pride of Da-Duh, the sugarcanes appear threatening to the narrator she feels that the canes are â€Å"clashing like swords above my cowering head†. This is a description of the duality of life. Where there is joy, there is pain and when there is life, death is bound to follow. Cycle of Life and Death 2 Imagery The life-death antithesis is depicted in the closing lines of the book where the narrator paints â€Å"seas of sugar-cane and huge swirling Van Gogh suns and palm trees [in] a tropical landscape . . . while the thunderous tread of the machines downstairs jarred the floor beneath my easel. ’’ Light is identified by the surrounding darkness and life, by death that eventually follows. The transient nature of life is evidenced by the changes that happen over a period of time. Death’s morbidity invades the colorful mind. The narrator imbues the reader’s mind with images that allude to this dark reality. â€Å"All these trees†¦. Well, they’d be bare. No leaves, no fruit, nothing. They’d be covered in snow. You see your canes. They’d be buried under tons of snow. † Metaphor With a judicious use of metaphors, the narrator has drawn us to the reality of inevitable changes that our lives are subject to. Again, the sugarcanes are metaphorically perceived as the ominous danger that â€Å"†¦ would close in on us and run us through with their stiletto blades. † Later, the planes that cause the death of her grandmother are visualized by the narrator as â€Å"the hardback beetles which hurled themselves with suicidal force against the walls of the house at night. † She points at our dogmatism in accepting the fact that the world is constantly changing. Those who fail to see this at first, experience it the hard way later. Conclusion However prejudiced we might be, towards change, the hard-hitting reality of a life-death cycle is inevitable. Time stands testimony to this fact. Paulle Marshall has Cycle of Life and Death 3 illustrated this through the depiction of conflicting ideas between her and Da-Duh and she conveys this message at the start when she writes, â€Å"both knew, at a level beyond words, that I had come into the world not only to love her and to continue her line but to take her very life in order that I might live. References Marshall, Paulle (1967). To Da-Duh, in Memoriam Rena Korb, Critical Essay on â€Å"To Da-duh, in Memoriam,† in Short Stories for Students, The Gale Group, 2002. Martin Japtok, â€Å"Sugarcane as History in Paule Marshall’s ‘To Da-Duh, in Memoriam,†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ in African American Review, Vol. 34, No. 3, Fall 2000, pp. 475-82.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

DPP Assignment 2 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

DPP 2 - Assignment Example The document has about 3000 words excluding the appendices with the following subsections: This report is going to analyse my competencies and skills acquired from my postgraduate academic studies and its applicability to the workplace environment. I decided to pursue postgraduate studies to further my studies and advance my intellectual and cognitive skills together with particular techniques relevant to a business environment and a managerial level position. After my postgraduate studies, I plan to join the corporate world and at the same time continue pursuing my PhD. PDP is extremely imperative because it can help you develop and enhance the skills that you already possess or those skills that you require to enable you to be responsible for your personal learning, development and advancing into the corporate world. In addition, the types of jobs that majority of graduates want demand that they possess some skills and qualities that can support them in discharging their duties at their places of work. This is where PDP plays a great role in nurturing and helping them acquire and enhance their skills. PDP either was introduce into the institutions of higher learning to enable students plan their long-term and short-term goals and determine the means of achieving them through planned and structured ways. PDP also helps to reflect back on your personal achievements and learning to help plan your path of career (Cottrell, 2003). Finally, through my PDP, I have realized that I have strengths that I need to work on and enhance if I am going to be recognized as an asset at my work environment. Through my project management, I realized that I have such strengths as: I am a positive thinker, plays management role when in a team like leadership, communication recognized through well coordination of my SDG, explorative through research, team builder, and critical thinker and reflective realized through my term and

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Living Together Before Marriage as a Controversial Topic Research Paper - 7

Living Together Before Marriage as a Controversial Topic - Research Paper Example The people who strongly oppose couples living together prior to marriage stress the significance of adhering to traditional beliefs in the sacrament of marriage. The previous generation has always supported the need for marriage before their children could live with a person not yet considered one’s spouse. The belief marriage is more than a mutual agreement, but more so, a sacrament blessed by Divine Power is prevalent in major religions. Those couples who decide to get married have their unions blessed and are therefore believed to endure challenges and trials ‘until death do them part’. On the contrary, supporters of those who believe that living together is an agreement that is more beneficial indicate that disagreement from various sectors is not fully justified. Although the majority of people believe that living together is, in fact, going against the norm by asserting that â€Å"cohabitors are partially rejecting society's dominant value system. Those peo ple who enter cohabitation relationships tend to perceive social rules in flexible terms† (Cohabitation, par. 11). A glimpse on the research on contemporary generation has proven that â€Å"young couples are most accepting of cohabitation, and it is likely that it will become increasingly popular over time† (Barlow, Duncan, James, and Park, 1). In this regard, there are lesser social pressures or stigma associated with couples who opt to live together prior to marriage. Living together before marriage gives more benefits as long as the couples are physical, emotionally, economically mature to acknowledge the responsibilities and accountabilities that go with the agreement.

Monday, October 7, 2019

Self-discovery and Understanding of World in Against Meat and Praise Essay

Self-discovery and Understanding of World in Against Meat and Praise of Self-deception - Essay Example Even with the improved capacity to conceive build and design sophisticated equipment, tame some of the wildest beasts the earth has ever known and even travel thousands of miles to the moon, a man seems not to understand his own functionalities. He seems increasingly confused in understanding the most complex machine evolution has provided; the brain. Although scientists at least have clues on how the brain process information, it has always been a dilemma on how the physical and the tangible aspects of the brain easily connect to aspects such as emotions and how the brain affects our decision-making processes. Perhaps the state of chaos and confusion that in most instance human beings conceal behind the mask of ambition, philanthropy, humanity or even religion is better explained by the artistic impressions of artists. The question is whether man has the capacity to find answers on his real self but opts not to, due to fear of what he might discover. Maybe the man is just not able t o self-discover and will in most instances carefully construct theories in an attempt to hide his ineptness in these matters. Using the â€Å"Broken Column† (Self-portrait) by Fridah Kahlo as the yardstick, the paper will conduct an analysis on two texts; â€Å"against meat† and â€Å"praise of self-deception.† The Self. ... The article â€Å"Against Meat† by Jonathan Safran is a narration about his battle with the commitment of being a vegetarian. Safran begins by outlining the initial concept that was nurtured in him concerning meat and how he experienced difficulties in converting to vegetarianism even after realizing the ills associated with meat. Safran learned at an early age from his grandmother that there was no kind of food that was bad and that most parts of food were to be eaten. Safran writes that: No foods are bad for you. Sugars are great. Fats are tremendous. The fatter a child is, the fitter it is — especially if it’s a boy. Safran also mentions that his grandmother had endured the 2nd World War surviving barely enough to eat and was even sometimes forced to scavenge for food remnants in dustbins. As a result, his grandmother’s obsession with food was particularly due to her past experiences with hunger. Then after that Safran learnt from his father that kickin g animals was not good, only for the father to flush a golden fish Safran received as a gift in the toilet. These instances together with the conversation he had with the baby sitter only served to disillusion Safran concerning the ills of eating meat. The disillusionment Safran felt was due to the fact that most people around him ate meat despite believing that eating meat is causing undue distress to animals. Safran admits that the disillusionment had profound impact on his life, that he found himself constantly making excuses to eat meat despite being a vegetarian. Safran proceeds to narrate a life where he hypocritically consoled himself that he had not caused any distress because he had not actually killed but was just consuming what had been killed by another.  

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Holocaust Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Holocaust - Essay Example 2 Even prior to the burst of the World War II, Nuremberg Law was ratified. On the one hand, the Nazis also subjected to slave labor and tortured to death the inmates seized in concentration camps. 2. Causes of the Holocaust What had made the Nazis to commit the Holocaust or the persecution of the approximately six million Jews was their discrimination and hatred against Jews or a phenomenon also known as anti – Semitism. The fundamental impetus for this disturbing massacre was only ideological. The Nazis had envisioned a world where the Jews would rule the world in which this was contradictory to the Aryan quest. They massacred millions of Jews as they regarded the Jews to be inferior to the Germans’ â€Å"supposedly† superiority. They killed these Jews because of the Nazi racial propaganda. 3. Pre-Holocaust German Culture and History The advent of the Volkisch movement in Germany and Austria – Hungary marked the second half of the 19th century. The anti à ¢â‚¬â€œ Jewish sentiments were so apparent. ... , that the it was pressed by Alldeutscher Verband to strip of their German citizenship all the German Jews and just be regarded of having an alien status.5 In addition to that, Class also called for the Jews to be singled out in all aspects of German life. Jews should not be permitted to own any land.6 For Class, they should not even embrace a public office or be engaged in banking, journalism and other professions of liberal nature where they could voice out their point of views.7 It was a total urge for anti - Semitism. 4. The Targeted Victims of the Holocaust The main victims of the Holocaust were the Jews residing in Europe. Hitler's Nazi regime massacred two - thirds of the nine million European Jews population. Nonetheless, it is of importance to note that during the Holocaust, the Jews were not only the segment affected. In fact, the Nazis also annihilated five hundred million Gypsies. Apart from that, there were more than three million Soviet prisoners of war who were killed. The mentally challenged and physically disabled individuals also were subject to killings. Under the Nazi rule, those undesirable to them including the Communists, Social Democrats, Polish intelligentsia, members of the trade unions, partisans, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals and others were subject to persecution. Selection of Jews located at Auschwitz-II (Birkenau) in year 1944 It is also the case that the children were also victimized by the Nazis. They were also subject to death. Though the total number of children killed in this period was not known, an estimate as high as one and a half million children were believed to be murder. 8 5. Germany’s Responsibility of the Final Solution In 1930s, the world outside Nazi Europe had been aware of the persecution of Jews and the situation

Saturday, October 5, 2019

What is, according to your critical evaluation of what has been Essay

What is, according to your critical evaluation of what has been written on the topic, the best way to motivate people at work(Human resource management) - Essay Example Thus, it is evident how important motivation is in the workplace as this affects the caliber of an organisation’s performance and ultimately, success. The employees are the greatest asset of any company and most often are the sole component that can set a company apart from its competitors. With proper personnel management that develops an empowered workforce, the competition experienced by virtually all industries can be overcome. Empowerment is defined as a means to allow employees to carry out decisions and a intrinsic drive to have accountability for one’s behaviours (Bowen & Lawler 1992, 1995). This implies that empowerment is an outcome of management and employee efforts. Corsuon & Enz (1999) note that contemporary research has focused on psychological empowerment, particularly on the phenomenology of the employee, whereas in the past, the concept has focused on decision making and delegation of tasks (Blau 1964) Thomas and Velthouse (1990) further defined the construct as an intrinsic drive apparent in four clusters. These are meaning, competence, self-determination, an impact; these mirror an employee’s evaluation and perspective of her job and role. The first cluster, competence, refers to the extent to which an employee can carry out activities with competence when he attempts to do so; it pertains to proficiency of a skill. On the other hand, meaning is the premium attached to an objective or a mission, which is evaluated through a person’s own set of values or personal criteria. Moreover, meaning is the match between one’s job and contribution to work on one hand, and the cognition, affect, and behaviours on the other. Empowerment allows for an increase in employee motivation because empowered employees see meaning in what they do and since the goals of the company are consistent with what they attach value to (Staples 1990). Self-determination pertains to having a sense of freedom in managing one’s

Friday, October 4, 2019

A Mothers Legacy In Mary Shelleys Mathilda Essay Example for Free

A Mothers Legacy In Mary Shelleys Mathilda Essay Abstract Mary Wollstonecraft and her daughter Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley are two writers whose ideas are likely to be similar. Shelley admits that she is influenced by her mother. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to find out and to identify the ideas presented in Wollstonecrafts essay on womens rights A Vindication for the Rights of Woman (1792) and see if they are incorporated into Shelleys novella Mathilda (1819). My analysis of A Vindication for the Rights of Woman shows that Wollstonecrafts main ideas are that limited education, the subjugation of women by the family, female dependency on men and romantic thinking are the source for womens inferiority. This essay identifies and examines these ideas in the light of some secondary material and tries to suggest that they are visible as themes in Shelleys Mathilda. In Mathilda, these ideas are visible as themes throughout the novel. The tragedy that befalls the characters illustrates the immoral and self-destructive tendencies which women obtain when being subject to these conditions. On the other hand, Shelley does not emphasize a lack of education and offers an additional point of view where Wollstonecrafts views on motherhood are criticized. The conclusion drawn is that Wollstonecrafts ideas must have had an influence on Shelley as the fate of the characters is an illustration of the society that is criticized in A Vindication for the Rights of Woman and its destruction. However, Shelley does not agree on ideas with the subject of upbringing and goes against a few of her mothers main points, namely the role of mothers and the pre-eminence of education. They mostly have a consensus as most ideas that are present in one work are present in the other but Shelley has rebelled against some of her mothers notions.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Four Seasons Goes To Paris Case Study Tourism Essay

Four Seasons Goes To Paris Case Study Tourism Essay One of the worlds leading operators of luxury hotels, Four Seasons, renovated George V and operated it as Four Seasons Hotel George V Paris in 1999, which is its first property in France. George V was opened in 1928 and since that has been a landmark which is located in the Triangle dOr (golden triangle). In Four Seasons Goes to Paris case study shows how Four Seasons developed the diversity and adapted to French market, with the Four Seasons outstanding standards. The purpose of this report is to analyse how Four Seasons, a Canadian company adapted the big cultural difference, also to be able to apply and explain the management principles identified in the case study and the management strategies in todays reality. Furthermore, by understanding how the management adapt to become the French employer and what the company core values were implemented in Four Seasons team, in order to know how the management stand out in this process. Finally, comparing to Four Seasons years of management in Paris how does the current internal and external environment affect the managers to be more entrepreneurial. Cultural awareness, Adaptation and Management Changes Cultural awareness can be thought of as internalized attitudinally insights about those common understandings held by groups that dictate the predominant values, attitudes, beliefs and outlooks of the individual. (Adler, 1986:31) Four Seasons opened its first property in Paris and it was a huge challenge for the management to go into the local. According to the case study, French is characterized by cultural researchers as having Polychromic Culture, which means they consider the importance of human relationships and they prefer building lifetime relationships. On the contrary, Americans are much more easygoing to develop short-term relationships. French do different tasks at the same time usually, but their attention can be taken away very easily. Additionally, the management explained that there is simply an incredible pride in being French and the French have a very emotional way of doing things. They cannot keep the standards and do not respect the Golden rules as it is too American as well as changing plans often because their decisions sometimes are unpredictable and not based on any reasons. For the management has to adjust to the French regulations especially in labor policy regarding to the staff working hours and conditions. David Crowl, noted that each hotel is tailor made and adapted to its national environment. Four Seasons have learned across borders from different countries and properties, trying to incorporate the native elements inside the property. Richey, the president of Richey International, which was hired to audit service quality and he felt that Four Seasons adapted to the local market very successfully from a design perspective at the first place. Also they understand the national idiosyncrasies, business culture and labor laws in order to become a French employer. Besides, Four Seasons hired Didier Le Calvez to be the General Manager of George V. He had 25 years working experience outside France and he acquired patience and tolerance to prepare the hotel opening. Four Seasons had assigned a 35-person task force which composed of experienced Four Seasons staff to help Le Calvez and his teams, to be Four Seasonize as well as making sure that the opening will be succeed. It helps to establish norms, attitudes and beliefs by reflecting the operating needs and is a good way for communicating the right information to all staff. In addition, the management implemented the 35-hour workweek at George V in order to meet the spirit of French law. Besides, starting direct line meeting for General Manager with managers, supervisors and employees in groups of 30 once a month, in order to promote communication and address the problems. It is very important for staff to be aware of different national and organizational culture because management is a process of coordinating work activities with the management skills in order to complete the work efficiently and effectively with and through people. (Robbins and Decenzo, 2008) It enables to work well with other people both in a group and individually, as hospitality is a people industry and about interaction with people from different culture, language and beliefs, communication can be improved by developing and understanding the cultural awareness Besides, a successful management for today should be able to be flexible, create ethical work environments and exhibit entrepreneurial skills when facing the changes. As we are not all the same and everyone is unique, we have to recognize the similarities and differences of each individual us, in order to achieve the same goal for the company. Instilling the Core values into the team Core values are operating  philosophies or  principles  that guide an organizations internal conduct as well as its  relationship  with the external world. (businessdictionary.com, 2010)   It is important for stakeholders of the organization because it is a performance guide and clarification of what behaviour and attitude should be performed. According to Sharp, founder and CEO of Four Seasons, he mentioned that the reason for their success is no secret. It comes down to one single principle that transcends time and geography, religion and culture. Its the Golden Rule the simple idea that if you treat people well, the way you would like to be treated, they will do the same. (Fourseasons.com, 2010) Sharp emphasized that The Golden Rule is the key to the success of the firm. It is not only a positive belief that provides consistently exceptional service and just for you to the guests, but also is a monitor to the employees and helps to shape relationships between the guests and staff. Base on the Golden Rule, the management needs to stand out by directing the activities of other people in the company with the functions of management, which is a process have generally been condensed to the basic four: planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Robbins and Decenzo, 2008:7) Planning It is a process to establish an overall strategy for achieving the goal of organization and helps to remind the staff what is the most important. (Robbins and Decenzo, 2008). The management mentioned the Four Seasons is a family and completes with rules, traditions and tough love. In order to provide consistently exceptional just for you, the Golden Rule was established to guide the family. The behaviour of all staff over the world were expected to follow the seven Four Seasons Service Culture Standards (Refers to Appendix I), Departmental Sample Core Standards and Four Seasons Goals, Beliefs and Principles. (http://www.fourseasons.com/about_us/service_culture) They are the foundation of the organizational goals and it shapes the relationships between staff and guests, as well as enriches the service culture. Organizing Structure of the Organization The responsibility of the general manager is supervising the day-to-day operations of the property and the regional management structure of the company (Refers to Appendix II) is the most important of its ability to maintain and deliver the highest and most consistent service standards in a cost-effective manner. Hire the right person with right attitude Four Seasons is trying to look deep inside of the applicants in the selection process in terms of finding the potential employees with right attitude. Refer to Frederick Taylor, the father of scientific management believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way. Hire the right person with right attitude and proper training, not only increasing the strength of the property, but also controlling relationship between input and output in order to minimize the resource costs. Leading When managers motivate employees, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication channel, or resolve conflicts among members, they are leading. (Robbins and Decenzo, 2008:8) Le Calvez, carried out some programs for motivation such as the invitation to the employees and their families for an open event about three times a year, in order to break down the barriers and remind them the pleasantness of working. Furthermore, achievement was celebrated by launching employee-of-the-month and employee-of-the-year programs to let the staff understand the recognition and the work speaks for them. Controlling The basic controlling process is the responsibility for monitoring, comparing and correcting. (Robbins and Decenzo, 2008) The management of Four Seasons hired both external and internal auditors to audit and evaluate the service quality. It is very essential because the standards of Four Seasons are the foundation for all our properties and it is based on which we build according to a senior manager noted. Therefore, the top management team gathers every morning for reflection and reviews in order to go over the mistakes, which have been done unprofessional and comparing to the companys goal and service standards, then identify and address the problem for improvement. How does Current Internal and External Environment affect managers to become more entrepreneurial Compared to the year of Four Seasons management, it is very important for the current managers to be more innovative and creative, as well as flexible in order to become entrepreneurial to both change and adapt the changes. Current Internal Environment Analysis Management Change Le Calvez worked with Four Seasons for 18 years and 8 years General Manager and Vice President in George V, he joined Shangri-La in 2007. He was credited for the renovation and his leadership while facing the adaptation and challenges. In my opinion, it effected the work motivation of the managers but they should be able to adapt the changes all the time. The hotels culture is embodied in the General Manager, An F.S. George V manager noted and it is a opportunity to establish innovative ideas and new promotional strategy in order to create a new hotels culture. Ownership Four Seasons agreed to be taken private in 2007 and was sold to the companys chief executive officer Sharp, as well as investment companies, one is Microsoft founder and Chairman, Bill Gates and the other by the owner of Fairmont Hotels Resorts, Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, the prince owned around 20% of Four Seasons already. (Usatoday.com, 2007) Gates and Prince Alwaleed invested on Four Seasons and there are opportunities to expand the Four Seasons and increase market share in other countries, where is the needs of luxury hotels and resorts. In this case the managers should work ambitious and pre-active to do market research in order to get the chance of promotions and working in another country. Current External Environment Analysis Political There are more upcoming infrastructure including convention centres, highway, mobile portal and urban planning. Furthermore, Paris is strongly promoted as a sustainable tourism destination as long as global warming becomes serious. It is also the new trend to being green in these few years, hence it provides the opportunity to explore Paris in eco-friendly way and helps to create an image of Paris is a green capital (parisinfo.com, 2010) As the French government promotes Paris as a green destination and it is part of the trend of tourism, the managers can create eco-friendly offerings and policies in order to enrich the reputation of Four Season through this opportunity. Economical Even with a tax rate of 43% in 2008, France is the fifth most attractive place to start a business. (industryweek.com, 2010) Therefore, the goods price in France is very stable as inflation rate is about 0.9 2% in these 5 years. The GDP contracted 2.1% in 2009 due to the financial crisis and there was world tourism collapse because of the Iceland volcano eruption in first quarter of 2010. Hence, there is a big lost since tourism is the largest income in Paris. Paris is the capital and gathers with most of the culture and technology of France, the manager can through this opportunity to more establish innovative conference package and facilities as well as eco-friendly meeting offer to fulfil the new demands. On the other hand, the managers can learn how and what to do during the financial crisis especially know what strategy to do when the hotel was in low occupancy rate and how to reduce the extra costs and arrange the work schedule properly in order to survive in bad financial situation. Socio Cultural Paris is well-known as a floury city but full of artistic and cultural atmosphere. There are 25,000 artists living and working in Paris because of its historic and romantic atmosphere. (Hurriyetdailynews.com, 2010) The managers will increase the cooperation with company which provides luxury city tour service as well as the training of the concierge service since the tourists come to Paris mostly for culture and sightseeing in order to create more revenue base on the advantage of the location and outstanding service. Technological France Telecom Group Orange Business Services and Disneyland Paris have built the wireless bar code of mobile messaging services for the visitors. (Technow.com, 2009) In meanwhile, the government is planning to increase building mobile portal. (Proximamobile.fr, 2009) It is very innovative and convenient and the visitors can access to the useful travel information. The managers can cooperate with the telecom companies about implement the new hotel wireless system in order to attract new target markets and turn it into the new unique selling point. Then the guests will be able to find the information of the property as well as the tourist information through this innovative service. Conclusion To conclude, Four Seasons  has grown effectively over half a century with the exceptional and unparalleled service. The success of Four Season all bases on a simple idea Golden Rules If you treat people well, the way you would like to be treated, they will do the same. Likewise, Four Season George V has been renovated successfully through by understanding the cultural awareness and adapting to the local market with universal standards. The successful management is not only required the qualifications but also be able to take accountability for decisions and policies, with the positive attitude, exhibit entrepreneurial skills and flexibility to create ethical work environments. Besides, the internal and external environment factors need to be recognized and overcome by the management skills. Hence, the spirit of the Four Seasons consistent personalize service will be highlighted perfectly. Appendix Appendix I The Seven Four Seasons Service Culture Standards (Sources: Four Seasons Goes to Paris Case Study) SMILE Employees will actively greet guests, SMILE, and speak clearly in a friendly manner. EYE Employees will make EYE contact, even in passing, with an acknowledgment. RECOGNITION All staff will create a sense of RECOGNITION by using the guests name, when known, in a natural and discreet manner. VOICE Staff will speak to guests in an attentive, natural, and courteous manner, avoiding pretension, and in a clear VOICE. INFORMED All guest contact staff will be well INFORMED about their hotel and their product, will take ownership of simple requests, and will not refer guests elsewhere. CLEAN Staff will always appear CLEAN, crisp, well groomed, and well fitted. EVERYONE EVERYONE, everywhere, all the time, show their care for our guests. Appendix II Four Seasons Reporting Structure (sources: Four Seasons Goes to Paris Case Study) Regional Vice Presidents Hotel General Managers Regional Marketing Director Area Director of Finance Regional Human Resource Director Supporting

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