Saturday, August 31, 2019

Lg Global Strategy Essay

This assignment focusses on LG’s Global Strategy looking into their operations in Brazil and India as well as researching minor parts of their efforts in Australia, China and the USA. LG (Lucky GoldStar) operates in the Consumer Electronics Industry on an international scale. The sources of information used for empirical evidence range from Academic journals and Interviews with LG Directors to information gathered from the LG press website and other academic online resources. To evaluate LG’s strategy one must access its worth, its usefulness and whether LG’s decisions and investments turned into tangible revenue. To understand LG’s Global Strategy success one must understand LG’s background. LG started in 1947 as a cosmetics cream manufacturer. LG expanded in to many industries in later years, eventually LG operated in the consumer electronics market. LG has turned into a very successful multinational company now, in the past two decades LG Electronics’ market share had grown at 22% from  £130 million in the 1980s to  £65 million the 1990s and  £7.1 billion by early 2005. LG owed much of its success to the South Korean Government’s incentive rich market it provided for the consumer electronics market. President Park Chung Hee of South Korea enacted the Economic Development Plan, which aimed to help the electronics industry by making it the national priority sector that would be developed. As a result, many western companies came to set up joint ventures, LG partnered with Philips, a European electronics company. LG-Philips became the largest manufacturer of flat screen TVs in world. By 2006, the group’s sales revenues massed up to $23 billion, making profits of $500 million. Of all of LG’s various revenue streams, LG Electronics provided 47% of the total revenue. LG knew they had to operate in the consumer electronics market internationally. LG was encouraged to invest in localized research and development by the Government making extensive amounts of research infrastructure. This particular point is one of the most important methods by which LG implemented a successful Global Strategy. During the mid-1980s over 120 private research institutes and 18 research consortia were created. (W. R. Shin and A. Ho, 1997.) Having high quality research and development infrastructure allowed LG to create a series of products that were tailored to the needs of South Korea. LG learnt from this episode that research and development created a competitive advantage for its products, and this was something they had to do in every countries across the globe instead of selling a set of standardized products. During the 1990s LG started a International Strategy that aimed to capitalize on the emerging BRIC economies (Brazil, Russia, India and China). LG started in Brazil by building a manufacturing plant in Manaus creating televisions and VCR’s to be sold around Brazil. The Government of Brazil offered low-tax rate incentives for businesses to build manufacturing plants in underdeveloped areas as well as subsidizing land for investors setting up operations. LG took full advantage of these incentives to establish themselves in Brazil. Brazil In the 1990’s had very high import tariffs, low brand recognition and had high competition in the grey goods market. In 1990, exchange rates plummeted making planning for businesses very difficult. Global players in Brazil decided to withdraw their operations or terminate them entirely. This provided a turning point for LG, they decided to expand their presence and create a strategy that would make Brazil a manufacturing hub for exports in South America and the USA. The fall in Brazils’s currency allowed LG to take on some low-cost advantages that make exporting very advantageous(Ramaswamy, K. 2007). LG was the largest exporter of electronic goods in South America. LG now tackled the areas of marketing and financial management to clamp down it presence in Brazil. LG wasn’t well recognized in Brazil so it needed to build some strong customer awareness. LG took advantage of the immense national popularity of football and started a branding campaign with sports events sponsorship. The LG sponsored a high ranking national football team in Sao Paolo(Ramaswamy, K. 2007), this brought immediate brand recognition to it’s products. LG now needed to transfer its brand recognition into tangible revenue though customizing it’s products to suit the needs of Brazilians. LG’s consumer electronics were a refreshing taste to Brazil’s market, LG gave most of its products a 3 year warranty pairing that with their promise of instant service if a customer’s product failed or broke-down. It used repair service vans able to reach a customer’s location in short time period. This helped ensure customers would receive a high level of quality and reliability from LG, this proved to be a worth-while competitive advantage over other competitors. LG’s efforts in Brazil certainly reflected a good example of a well implemented global strategy. They took advantages of the Governments tax incentives, furthermore LG filled the void in the consumer electronics market that was created by previous companies leaving when times got tough and created a strong marketing campaign. The best measure of their strategy’s success in Brazil is that in 2006 LG posted sales of  £1.2 billion, a 36% increase compared to the previous year. LG’s well implemented strategy in Brazil clearly led to market domination and a high profit. This was a strong international strategy, and LG adopted similar tactics in India. LG started operating in India when the Indian Government created advantageous market reforms allowing foreign companies to establish their own wholly owned subsidiaries in India. LG quickly took advantage of these reforms and created LGEIL (LGE India Ltd.) in 1997. LGEIL’s first factory was built in Greater Noida(40km from New Delhi), which manufactured washing machines, televisions, air conditioners and refrigerators. Mr Kwang-Ro Kim, Managing Director at the time said, â€Å"We knew it was important, for example, not to downgrade the Indian market and instead to treat it seriously as we would any developed market†, he goes on to explain â€Å"this meant preparing a preparing a full strategy and emphasizing good-quality products, the best technology, the best network and access to the best people†(Kim, K. R. 2005.). LG created these specialized products with vast research and development infrastructure, just like they had in South Korea. Local research and development teams were made to create product variations that were designed for the unique demands of India’s market. For example, they launched a cricket television set that had a built-in cricket game to take advantage of the millions of people who adored cricket in India. LGEIL’s Golden Eye technology used in TV’s allowed the brightness of the screen to be adjusted to the surrounding level of light., this proved to be an important feature because India is very prone to power supply imbalances that effect lighting intensity. Furthermore, they designed an air filtration system to keep it’s air conditioners working efficiently. This design was implemented because India’s metropolitan areas have high levels of particulate pollution. Its home appliance products were fitted with circuits able to handle the regular voltage fluctuations Indian households had. LG presented â€Å"an ‘Indianised’ face to its products but keeping the technology at global standards†(Mathur, U. C. 2010). These variations in products brought a refreshing taste to the Indian home appliance market. One problem LGEIL faced was the geographical diversity and India’s lack of infrastructure making distribution of it products difficult. To reach small towns and villages in India a solid distribution system needed to be adopted, their tiered approach allowed an anchoring regional distributor to supply cities and then complimented this system with offices in remote areas for the small towns. This system encompassed 4,000 access points to reach the masses to India’s giant population. A website called helped their distribution with online ordering as well as providing detailed information about their products and comparative pricing for different areas of the country. This was the first attempt by a major electronic goods manufacture and proved successful by creating another competitive advantage for LG. Customer Service was an important part of LGEIL’s strategy, just as they did in Brazil, they provided repair vehicles for reaching remote areas in short periods of time. Vans were fitted with electrical generators to ensure appliances could be fixed even in a country with regular blackouts. This was unseen to the Indian Market from any other competitor and became very favorable for customers. â€Å"This ‘walking-after sales service’ allowed traveling crews to cover ares that were previously unaccessible(Lee, D. W. 2005). This gave LG a competitive advantage over its Indian market competitors such as Onida or Whirlpool. In terms of marketing strategy, LGEIL decided to sponsor an Indian Cricket team. This proved such a success that LG decided to sponsor the Cricket World Cup in 2002(LG. 2009). LG became the largest sponsor of cricket in the world and this gained instant brand recognition for them across India, a country full of millions of cricket fanatics. A strong marketing campaign reaching customers all over India; LG’s localized product range and services provided with the products paid off rich dividends. LG’s â€Å"turnover for 2002 crossed Rs. 3000 Crore, that is a 37% increase on the previous year†(Mathur, U. C. 2010), that’s  £38million. LGEIL clearly beat their competitors, for example in the color television market LG had a market share of 26.4% and their nearest competitor, Onida, only had 10.8%. In the refrigerator market LG had a market share of 30.9%, Whirlpool, their nearest competitor only had 23.6%(Sinha, P. R. 2005)[1]. This was the same story with all their other home appliances. Clearly LG was making considerable profit and stood out from their competitors by providing quality products and services. But LG knew they had to do more to establish a strong foothold in India. LG had to demonstrate to India that they were not purely profit driven; they believed this would give LG a credible name in India and gain the loyalty from the Indian market. LG subsidized primary schools and gave educational books to children. They even built a village school close to manufacturing facilities. Local employees were staffed for most of the top managerial positions of LGEIL. This managerial tactic allowed a South Korean company to appear as an Indian business. These resulted in huge good-will from Indian customers which was the final tie in a successfully implemented Strategy. In 2006 Mr Nam Woo, President of LG Electronics (LG), unveiled LG’s ambitious plans to grow its presence in China. LG had leant many lessons from its early missions in emerging markets such as Brazil and India that would help LG stay a dominate global player. â€Å"We want to make China a strategic base for our business, so we must be a leader not only in sales, but also in research and development and in localization.†(Liu Baijia, 2006). LG took advantage of China’s cheap labour costs and soon where able to â€Å"leverage an entire manufacturing network to serve countries such as Russia and the USA† (Ramaswamy, K. 2007). This is evidence of LG looking elsewhere to export their products, this was an integral part to LG’s Global Strategy. Not every part of LG’s strategy was perfect though, many of their products were recalled, for example, in Australia 2009 some of LG’s refrigerators broke down due to faulty wiring â€Å"which resulted in reduced insulation from electricity passing through. It could cause minor electric shocks†(Global Data, 2009). Furthermore LG had to â€Å"recall it’s Spyder Cell Phones in the USA†¦over 30,000 cell phones of this type were in use† (Global Data, 2009). This adversely affected their brand name and shows lack for careful attention to product design which reflects a bad global strategy, this showed similar results to their efforts in the USA. LG started to look towards providing its products in the West, most notably the USA, an already challenging market. LG started supplying US stores with its home appliances such as microwave ovens and toasters. The conquest for shelf space was extremely difficult because of LG’s poor brand recognition as well as questions about LG’s product reliability and quality. The USA was not the place for LG to display its products. The products that the USA consumer electronic market wanted were the more fashionable European and Japanese home appliance products. LG failed to create a series of products the USA market wanted in comparison to its competitors. This clearly shows a weak strategy in LG selling its products global. Overall, the international strategy LG implemented shows a pattern, in emerging economies such as Brazil and India, LG thrived, however in developed economies such as Australia and the USA, LG was unsuccessful. LG’s successes derived from 3 key areas that created a useful and worth-while international strategy. Firstly, they invested heavily in research and development to create products that suited the needs of the local market. LG now has over â€Å"36 research and development activities worldwide† (Global Data, 2009). Secondly, they pursued a marketing strategy that targeted each country’s whole population. In both Brazil, and India we see LG sponsoring sports events and teams which was a great way to create instant brand recognition across each country. Thirdly, LG treated emerging markets seriously by providing quality products complimented with high caliber services, this was a worth-while decision because countries like Brazil and India hadn’t been subject to this kind of service. The content researched is very interesting and insightful and poses the question, ‘Can these three factors be applied as a international strategy for any multinational company?’. To fully evaluate LG’s international one must further research there operations in Russia and China. Whilst LG showed signs of weaknesses, their international strategy gave their products and services a competitive advantage over their competitors making them market leaders in specific countries. LG’s efforts created LG a net income of over $13.1 billion in 2011 due to their global presence and is ranked 47th in the Fortune 500 companies, these achievements derived from what was a successful International strategy. Bibliography W. R. Shin and A. Ho, 1997. Industrial transformation: Interactive decision-making process in creating a global industry. Public Administration Quarterly. Summer. Kannan Ramaswamy, 2007. LG Electronics: Global Strategy in Emerging Markets. Understanding Global Strategy. Kwang-Ro Kim, 2005. Premium Marketing to the Masses: An interview with LG Electronics Managing Director. The McKinsey Quarterly Special Edition: Fulfilling India’s Promise C. Mathur, 2010. Global Business Strategies. LG Group. Pg 290 Duk-Woo Lee, 2005. LG the No.1 company in India. LG News. february, Vol. 24 LG, 2009. Asia and Pacific Sponsorship, the Cricket World Cup. LG Press Website. (URL P. R. Sinha. 2005 Premium marketing to the masses: An interview with LG Electronics India’s Managing Director. McKinsey Quarterly. Liu Baijia, 2006. LG wants local managers to aid growth. China Daily. April 20, 2006 Global Data, 2009. SWOT Analysis of LG.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Academic skills Essay

Academic skills are also very much emphasised in Singapore’s educational policy as our government values meritocracy. Achieving academic excellence is top priority for all school children in Singapore. Hence, many parents are still not in favour of a play-centred curriculum, as they fear this will not help their children to achieve academic success. With ranking of schools’ performance and learning outcomes; teachers and parents are compelled to neglect play in favour of more â€Å"school-like† activities. Similar to the American context as mentioned earlier, Singaporean parents send their children to many enrichment activities to help them to be outstanding in academic studies as well as extra-curricular activities such as music and golf lessons. As a result, children are much deprived of free play. Many children have not acquired the art of making friends and even the ability to make friendly contacts (Tan et al, 1997) The foregoing examples demonstrate that parental perspectives, socio-economic status, cultural factors, and educational policies are some issues that could negate the value and importance of play to children’s development and be viewed as having no â€Å"real educational experiences† (Leong & Bodrova, 2003, pp. 5). On the contrary, Hughes (1999, p. 109) advises that play is very often the context in which the needs of a growing child are developed and enhanced. It is vital to the development of all facets of the young child – personal awareness, emotional well-being, socialisation, communication, cognition, and perceptual motor skills (Hughes, 1999, p. 62-64, 68-69, 81-109 – 111). There are numerous play processes that help develop these many facets in the young child. Infant games such as peek-a-boo, making funny faces in front of a mirror, and water play in bathtub promote adult-child relationship. Playing also encourages and strengthens awareness of self and others; thus, it facilitates the development of a child’s image of himself and others. Indeed, they are not meaningless play especially when adults play with children, the latter will find adults more fun to be with; it is easier to form attachment that leads to securely attached children. Secure attachment is vital to the growing child: it gives him trust and confidence in his environment; it enables him to venture, explore, and learn about his surroundings (Hughes, 1999, p. 196-197, Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2001, p. 77-79). Therefore, open-ended materials such as blocks enable the child to exercise spatial awareness concepts, perceptual skills, eye-hand coordination as well as pretend play and creative imagination (Van Hoorn & Nourot, p.255-256). Children use mathematical skills and science concepts and ideas to further expand their creativity in their construction with blocks; they will add details and complex structures to their block play (Isenberg & Jalongo, 1997, pp. 275-277). Children make use of their bodies and motor skills to move and stack up blocks that is beneficial to their physical development and strategic planning. Much creativity, divergent thinking, and cognitive skills are developed as children engage in pretend play. Thus, children should not be viewed as â€Å"just playing†. Their minds and thoughts are actively involved as they prepare their own scripts and collaborate to direct their play. They plan, negotiate roles and actions, agree and remind each other about the rules they have made. During pretend play, children get to practise their social skills. For instance, when children are unable to agree to play hospital or grocery store, they compromise by combining both. Hence, children play and learn to problem solve (Leong et al, Mar 2003, Rogers et al, 1998).

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Seeing Holbein The Ambassadors Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Seeing Holbein The Ambassadors - Essay Example It has been noted also that a fur-trimmed over-garment like the one pictured â€Å"became the typical garment of the scholar† (Emberley, 1997, p. 128). His imposing stance and cool gaze denote power and influence in the world. In contrast, the cleric on the right appears a little more withdrawn. He stands back in the shadows and wears dull robes with the white collar indicating his religious calling. The two men appear to be placed as a contrast to one another, but they are linked by the display of fine objects that both lean upon. These objects are laid out with scientific objects above and artistic instruments below. Berger’s explanations about the connotations of great wealth are helpful in understanding the tremendous change that happened in Western civilization in the sixteenth century. This was a time when the Reformation divided people into Protestants and Catholics, and the two men represent the different sides of this major debate. The rise of the Protestantism in the northern parts of Europe is credited with bringing about the earliest stages of capitalism, and this is what Berger is hinting at with his emphasis on the objects in the painting. Most of the population in Northern Europe was still occupied in agricultural work or small cottage production but this was a time when cities began to expand. ... Some of the wealthiest individuals â€Å"invested their wealth in government obligations† (van Zanden, p. 143). The ambassadors in the picture are French, (Wolf, 2004, p. 71) and they represent two different sources of wealth. Both of them provide services to the government. One of them is busy with new market related activities, and the other brings the old power and influence of the Church. A focus on material goods, rather than spiritual ideas, is a feature of this movement, and this could explain why the man on the left appears to dominate the picture at the expense of the man on the right. Although Holbein lived and worked in London, his painting style reflects the techniques of the Dutch masters of the time. The very detailed depiction of the work of craftsmen such as weavers, embroiderers, carpet makers, goldsmiths and all the rest may well also be an acknowledgement of the great contribution that the medieval guilds had made to the development of society and the creati on of wealth. The peasants provided the basic raw materials of production. The trained and certified craftsmen turned the raw materials into the highly prized consumer goods that wealthy people purchased. The emphasis on the detail of their work highlights a new appreciation of luxury, and this is what fuels an endeavor to produce ever better quality, and discover improved techniques. It is noticeable also that some of the objects, apart from being valuable, are also evidence of distant travel. This recalls the great discoveries of distant lands that had been taking place in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. It is as if the two men are displaying all the richness of the globe, in the fine human objects, as well as the riches of heavenly things, indicated by the globes,

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Reprogenetics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Reprogenetics - Essay Example Which would mean creating children who are only useful and denying the others, who are considered useless in their place. Children created for parents selfish purpose is associated with disrespect for life of the discarded embryo taking the IVF cases and more questionably creating the children for the desired skin color, potential qualities and emotional satisfaction linked with status and reputation. She further explains the "intrinsic motivation view" which is to have a child for his own sake and bonding of the family. The "indiscriminate motivation view" is associated with post conception and treatment of child once born. It is just unreasonable to become parents of fully made up child. It is just unacceptable to create a child for some selfish reason of savior child or conspicuous immoral consumption. The children also have a need to be loved for their own sake and to be valued as individuals created by god not by technology. And these needs have to be considered and loved. Which also means the parents to be "unselfishly benefiting children" and also parents being "selfishly benefiting form children" for who and what they truly are and not what they could have artificially made them. T Designer Babies and the Pro-Choice Movement By Rebecca Tuhus-Dubrow Today the escalating fertility industry has shifted the making of baby from bedroom to laboratory. The in vitro fertilization allows the parents to decide how they want their children to be made. And the most questionable, it enables the selection of desired gender. It is also a political issue related to social values and individual liberty. Designer babies, the idea itself tinkers with genes, and to play as god at the stake of humanity. Creating babies to cure diseases of siblings is different and to fulfill the cosmetic needs in a conscious environment of health and beauty. The new eugenics provides more reproductive choices and desired babies but a line has to be drawn to it. This can also have social consequences as explained by Lee Silver, Princeton this could develop a whole new species which would completely separate the natural class and Gen rich class. The parents then will have to insert the best genes in their children to get them into best schools. This can challenge the human race and humanity at large. This can cause extremes to the communities like the GLBT. In case a gay gene identification is made, this technology can threaten the community at large. It can harm the reproduction and abortion rights of women. There will be greater line of distinction between equality and inequality, as meddling with the environment has its adverse affects attached. The reprogenitics has given humans a choice over life. The uncontrolled use of reprogenetic technologies will have adverse implications for the future. Re-Engineering the Human: New Reproductive

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Project management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Project management - Case Study Example As the total project duration is 64 weeks, Janis will easily finish the project in time provided that she starts over now that the date is 1 February, 2009 instead of the desired start date of the project that is 17 April 2009. Janis can not finish the project by 30 June 2010 if she starts at 17 April 2009, what to talk of finishing at 30 December 2009! If Janis starts working at 17 April 2009, she will have about 58 weeks to finish the project whereas the actual project duration is 64 weeks. So the project would be late by 6 weeks. Though, if she starts working at 1 February 2009, she would have 68 weeks to finish the project, and would thus finish a month earlier than 30 June 2010. By no way can Janis finish the project by December 2009 unless she crashes the schedule. As, determined from the CPM calculations, the total float is zero on activities 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 21, 24, 26, and 27, so Janis would have to cut short the duration of one or several of these activities if s he wants to finish the project till December 2009.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Genetic modification of foods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Genetic modification of foods - Essay Example Genetic engineering is the process of altering the genes of a species by transferring certain traits from the genes of other species into it. Genes are composed of DNA and constitute instructions which direct the cell production of proteins which in turn, facilitate the functions of the cell. Nevertheless, this is an act of meddling with the nature. These days various religious and public interest organizations, environmental activists and numerous other government and private agencies are raising their consent against the genetic modification of the foods. Agribusiness has received massive criticism for enhancing the profitability of the business with the genetic modification of food without care for the environment unfriendly side effects of the same. Owing to our limited knowledge, we are not able to identify many potential demerits of the practice of modifying the genes of the foods we consume. Nature knows its laws best and any attempt to improvise the nature of food does not co me without side effects. Genetic modification of foods yields both direct and indirect unfavorable consequences. Genetic modification may not necessarily make the crop harmful to eat, but may also generate negative effects for the environment in the course of cultivating the very crop. In the Nature study, pollen from the B.t. corn was found to cause the monarch butterfly caterpillars to die in large numbers (Whitman). This was a surprising discovery since monarch caterpillars feed upon the milkweed plants instead of corn. The most likely way for the corn pollen to make it to the caterpillars’ stomach requires wind to blow them and place them upon the milkweed plants. A lot of effort has conventionally been made to cultivate such B.t. toxin that kills just the crop-destroying pests, but hardly any has met with success. Not only the butterfly caterpillars, but also several other species of organisms are exposed to the risk by the B.t. toxins. â€Å"These genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can spread through nature and interbreed with natural organisms, thereby contaminating non 'GE' environments and future generations in an unforeseeable and uncontrollable way† (â€Å"What wrong with†). Thus, we are increasing the resistance of our crops against diseases on the cost of the life of various species and organisms which are not only harmless for us but also play a fundamental role in the beautification of nature. Genetic modification of food cultivates an allergen into it. â€Å"[A] soybean engineered to contain genes from a brazil nut was found to produce allergic reactions in blood serum of individuals with nut allergies† (Massey). These reactions are very serious and have the potential to be fatal. In this particular case, conducting test for the allergenic potential was easier because of the commonality of the nut allergies but it may not be quite as easier in other cases. Identifying the food item that might have instigated the a llergic reaction becomes very cumbersome when a familiar genetically engineered food starts producing unusual substances in the bloodstream. Sometimes, characteristics that have been induced in the food with positive intention can prove toxic in effect. For example, the Bt toxin that is produced by bacteria is conventionally deemed safe for the humans. Toxin in these bacteria sustains in the form of protoxin that yields negative effects for the insects after the digestive system of the insect has activated it. Humans lack sufficient knowledge about exposure to such a toxin form that is produced in activated form by the genetically modified Bt crops and existed before only in the insects’

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Engineering design Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Engineering design - Assignment Example This is a crucial step in the design process since it will give aguideof achieving the design’s goals. Questionnaires as a research methodology were chosen for this case. It emerged a suitable method because sufficiently large amount of information can be collected from a large group and within a short span of time as well as in a cost effective way. The data obtained from this method could also be easily and more scientifically analysed (, 1996). To minimize any risk of harm to the user, it was decided that the kettle should have a shield just below the handle. This prevents any burns due to steam from boiling water/tea. In addition, all the electrical components should not be exposed nor get in contact with the water. The inside of the kettle will be made of thick plastic and the outside a coating of polished stainless steel. This ensures a good strength to avoid any physical damage. As stated, this kettle has two heatersthat may work independently, and this will increase the life of the coils. This mechanism consists of the initial starting ‘on’ ‘off’ switch and a thermostat controlled switching. Some old kettles do not have an automatic shut-off mechanism, which requires the user to switch it off when the water has boiled. After brainstorming and analysis of other various switching mechanisms, two possible switching designs were selected and they are outlined below. These concepts were chosen to meet the customers requirements as well as follow engineering specifications as outlined previously. This mechanism involves theuse of a bimetallic thermostat, which is integrated into the element unit usually at the bottom. It consists of a disc bonded together and areusually of two different metals where one expands faster than the other does. When the hot water reaches the boiling point, the produced steam hits this thermostat making it flex in theopposite direction thus disconnecting the contacts cutting off the electric current

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Marketing Advertising IMC Plan (Glaceau co.) Research Paper

Marketing Advertising IMC Plan (Glaceau co.) - Research Paper Example Customers are not segregated on the basis of age, sex, color or race. 2) Differentiated Marketing In this sort of marketing strategy the firm tries to target different segments of the market and a different marketing strategy is adopted for each segment of the market. 3) Concentrated Marketing In this strategy the firm chooses one segment of the market and focuses exclusively on that particular segment for its products. The product fulfils the needs of that particular group of customers only. For our product –Glaceau Smart and Vitamin Water; we have decided to apply the concentrated marketing strategy. We are going to target only one section of the customers for our products. The target market which has been selected for our product has the following features – Smart Water Men above 35 years of age Economically successful – main target is upper middle class male; more than $ 60,000 income. Marital status : Married Focused on staying young and healthy – vis its the gym regularly or exercises ,buys health drinks Occupied in sedentary jobs like management, software professionals etc. Vitamin Water Women above 35 years of age Economically successful-main target is the upper middle class Focused on health and staying young-visits the gym regularly or exercises or diets. Occupied in sedentary jobs Smart Water and Vitamin Water can be put under the functional foods category. Functional food may be defined as any type of food product where a new ingredient has-been added in order to make the product healthier. (Glenn R. Gibson)Thus Vitamin Water and Smart Water can easily be defined as functional foods as they add nutrients to water and make it healthier for the body. Functional food industry has been witnessing increased growth in USA these days. According to a survey conducted by Nutrition Business Journal a US citizen spends $50 per month in order to buy functional foods and this amount is increasing each day. It also says that only 8.7 % of the population has never purchased a functional food product – rest 91.3% has at one time or the other bought some or other category of functional foods. (Nutrition Business Journal).This report shows the vast potential for functional food products. So our decision to market Vitamin Water is both timely and fulfils a major consumer demand. However the question still remains as to why have we decided to target people above 35 years of age and why only those who are economically successful. A research by Mintel states that people prefer functional foods due to the following reasons- Reasons for functional food purchase % Make up for unhealthy eating 48 Weight loss 44 Supplement my diet 35 Address health issues 30 Avoid eating empty calories 26 In place of a meal 16 Others 7 Source: (Mintel International Group Ltd.) Vitamin Water and Smart Water can be targeted to all the people who are mentioned above except probably those who eat functional food in place of a meal or for ot her reasons. Vitamin Water and Smart water contains additional supplements which can provide supplement diet , addresses health issues due to lack of vitamins , helps you avoid calories and still intake vitamins and can also assist you in weight loss as you can replace water for your nutrient intake instead of food. Thus our products can be sold better to those who are concerned

Multi Channel Merchandising Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Multi Channel Merchandising - Essay Example "Super" shoppers, as they are identified in the report, are more likely to be customers of all three channels and purchase four times more frequently online than the average online shopper. "Super" shoppers purchase from a retailer's store 70% more frequently than the average store customer and 110% more frequently from the retailer's catalog. The study reports that reaching the "super" multi-channel customer is primary to a retailers' success. Retailers face big risks if they don't support their online channel. Significant levels of cross-channel purchasing were reported. Online shoppers were found to be the most active, with 78% purchasing from both the Web site and the brick-and-mortar store. Among those with a preference, 73% of store shoppers prefer to research their purchases online. Store shoppers in the 35-44 age group were 24% more likely to look for or purchase items in-store that they previously had seen on a retailer's Web site. Shoppers with household incomes between $75,000 and $99,999 were 55% more likely to browse online before buying. Multi-channel retail excellence remains elusive. Many retail executives readily acknowledge that they are far from realizing rewards from true multi-channel integration. Discussions with retail executives showed a wide range of sophistication levels across a number of important business areas. Some retailers have received buy-in from senior executives and are measuring Return On Investment (ROI) in an advanced way -- using tangible revenue results and intangible factors. Other retailers are just beginning to take ROI issues to senior executives and are struggling with internal conflict over...Of course many a housewife would tell you shopping is more than purchasing a need or a want. It is an experience in itself. The concept of retail therapy is not a new one and will probably be never out of fashion. The Wall street learnt what these housewives knew already in the dot-com bust. The learning which came out this was that net would continue to be an effective tool in retailing but it was not necessarily a either/or proposition. All companies needed to have a presence on the net and other areas to reach a new market of customers. A Key report came out in 2001 after the dust settled on the dotcom bust2. The summary of it was as follows: The majority of retailers looking at ROI in an advanced manner have history behind them-they tend to be catalog retailers, and according to this research, their importance to the future of multi-channel retailing excellence is crucial. According to a report by the Interactive Media in Retail Group (IMRG), the industry body for e-retailers, online spending rose to 4.2 billion in July, up 80 per cent year on year. While this is great news for a retail industry blighted by poor high street sales, such surveys provide only a top line view of consumer behaviour. Without doubt, this surge in online activity denotes growing consumer confidence, despite escalating fears of identity theft and poor online security.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Societal Impact & Cost vs. Benefit Research Paper

Societal Impact & Cost vs. Benefit - Research Paper Example Combustion of diesel also pollutes the environment by producing smoke, which is hazardous to survival, and removing diesel engines would reduce the levels of poisonous gases and smoke hence improve the health of people. However, cost of transportation would greatly increase since diesel offers lower costs of transportation than other fuels used for transportation. Alternative fuels would replace diesel in all forms of road transport, and this will make the energy sector sustainable over the years. The alternative fuels can be a mixture of bio fuels, synthetic fuels, methane and liquefied petroleum gas, which significantly reduce the amounts of poisonous gases in the atmosphere (Business Green). These alternative fuels produce minimal or no amount at all of greenhouse gases, and this means that global warming will be significantly reduced. Pollution will also be reduced through elimination of the smoke and poisonous gases emitted by combustion of diesel in the diesel engines. This implies that the environment will be protected from pollution hence healthy surroundings. Alternative fuels will enhance locomotion using electric and fuel cell vehicles, which will meet the demands for all transportation needs. Taking diesel engines off the roads will protect the environment from pollution, prevent air pollution from smoke and reduce health disorders related to the gases emitted from combustion of diesel. Bio fuels have the potential to meet all transport costs as well as reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other green house gases, which cause health complications and environmental degradation

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Conquest Of Mexico Essay Example for Free

The Conquest Of Mexico Essay The Spaniards, in the conquest of the Mexican people, relied just as heavily on chance and luck as they did on their on their skills on diplomacy and military prowess. The sicknesses that the Spaniards brought over with them in addition to the political situation that the Mexica had established with their neighbors is what really brought about the downfall of the great Mexican civilizations. In addition to these factors there was also the fact that up to this point in history the Americas have had very little in the way of contact from the outside world and consequently had next to no knowledge of the civilizations across the sea. When they first encountered the Spanish Conquistadors they held the belief that they were from the gods and that Cortez was the reincarnation of one of their gods and as such welcomed them with open arms. When you take into consideration all of the factors mentioned above you will see that the conquest of Aztecs and other Native American civilizations by the Spanish was accomplished by three major factors: diplomacy, military prowess, and no small amount of luck. The first of those factors is the diseases that the Europeans brought across the Atlantic with them. The most notable disease that caused the majority of the deaths among the Native American people was the pestilence of smallpox. An account of just how devastating smallpox was among a populace whose immune systems had no prior experience with or any way to combat European diseases can be found in book twelve of the Florentine Codex. â€Å"Before the Spaniards came to us, first an epidemic broke out, a sickness of pustules. It began in Tepeilhuitl. Large bumps spread on people; some where completely covered. They spread everywhere, on the face, the head, the chest, etc. [The disease] brought great desolation, a great many died of it. (Lockhart, 1993, 190)† The account goes on to describe the horrors that the disease had left behind in the lives of those who were lucky enough to survive. Many of the survivors had been left horribly scared or even blinded if they were unlucky enough for the disease to spread into their eyes. The main reason that these diseases had such a devastating effect on the natives and not on the Spaniards is the fact that the natives had very little in the way of domesticated animals. The Europeans had for thousands of years been in possession of a great many domesticated animal, such as pigs, horses, chickens, and cows, and it is these animals that are usually the incubators and carriers of a great many deadly diseases. Since the Europeans had been around them for so long their immune systems had adapted to the situation and were able to combat the diseases. The Aztecs had no such advantage. The deadly diseases of Europe were something completely new to them and their immune systems had no way to combat them. The Spaniards had no compunctions about taking advantage of the situation in their conquest of Mexico. Another huge factor that the Spanish had in their favor was the superior weapons that they had at their disposal and huge advantage that the weapons gave them in battle. The Aztec people were severely limited in the type of weapon that they could wield in battle due to the simple fact that their civilization had never discovered the art of metallurgy which Europe had discovered long prior. The weapons that they created were made from wood and stone. One such weapon that the majority of the Aztec warriors had in their possession is described in the book titled Victors and Vanquished. â€Å"Their primary weapon was a kind of wooden sword set with obsidian blades designed for slashing and incapacitating rather than killing an opponent. (Schwartz 2000 11)† The weapons of the Aztec warriors were all similar to that in that they were designed to incapacitate instead of kill. The entire reason for the Aztecs to be at war was the capture of prisoners that they could sacrifice to their gods. The Spaniards were not like that. Their weapons were designed for one purpose, to kill. Many of those weapons, such as the musket or crossbow, had a much greater range than any of the weapons that the natives could field in battle and they had no answer at all to the power of the Spaniards canons. The one factor that made all of every weapon that the Spaniards had at their disposal superior to any Aztec weapon is the simple fact that they were made of steel. There was one obstacle that the Conquistadors had that would prevent them from overwhelming the Aztecs even with their superior weaponry. That aforementioned obstacle was the fact that the Spanish only numbered in the hundreds while the Aztecs had their entire civilization backing them. The way that they were able to overcome that obstacle was through the art of diplomacy. The constant invasions and taking of prisoners by the Aztecs for their human sacrifices had earned them many enemies among their neighbors. When Spain began its exploration of the new world those very same neighbors saw their chance to finally bring about the destruction of their oppressors. An example of this can be found in a Spanish account of the invasion of Chapultepec. â€Å"The war was sustained fiercely on both sides, since on our side we had the help of many Tlaxacalan warriors †¦(Aguilar, 1993, 196)† The constant warfare and human sacrifice that the gods of the Aztecs demanded of them had finally helped to bring about the downfall of that great civilization. There was no one thing that brought about the downfall of the Mexican people. It was a conglomeration of events that finally toppled the great civilizations. The sicknesses and plaques that the Europeans brought over with them played no small part. The way in which the natives waged war was also a significant factor. The factor that really broke the back of the Aztecs was the constant need for human sacrifice. In their dealings with their neighbors they had created the foundation that Spaniards used for the negotiating of allies in the conquest of Mexico. In this collision of two previously separate worlds it was the Spanish who came out as the victor and the Aztecs as the vanquished.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Strategies to Improve Biodiversity Crisis

Strategies to Improve Biodiversity Crisis Shannon Stubbs Biodiversity Crisis Ireland, though famous for its greenery and beautiful scenery, has a culture of natural resource exploitation. Activities such as deforestation, agriculture and removal of peatlands/ bogs have harmed the countrys natural resources. Ireland has an extensive history of deforestation, spanning hundreds of years. Around 1390, significant deforestation due to land clearing for agriculture took place and continued until there was just 12 percent forest cover by 1600 (OHanlon, 2012). By the end of the 1800s, forest cover increased due to grants and the decline in population due to the famine (OHanlon, 2012). In 2012, there was only 10 percent forest cover in Ireland and over half of that is the non-native Sitka spruce (OHanlon, 2012). The demand for higher levels of productivity and an advance in farming methodologies/tools have led to an agricultural intensification in recent decades (Hutton Giller, 2003). Around 70% of Irelands total land area is used for agriculture (Hutton Giller, 2003). Clearing of land for agriculture has led to mass habitat loss and a subsequent extinction of species such as Crex crex (the corncrake), who lost their grassland habitats(Hutton Giller, 2003). Furthermore, studies such as Rushton et al. (1989) have illustrated that beetle and spider species decline in number and diversity when upland areas are agriculturally improved (Hutton Giller, 2003). Recently, the issue of invasive species has come to the forefront. Invasive species are a priority issue under the Convention on Biological Diversity and follow closely behind habitat destruction as one of the leading threats to global biodiversity (Caffrey et al., 2014; Caffrey et al., 2011). Invasive species can cost the Irish economy up to  £261,517,445 (Kelly et al., 2013). An example of a problematic invasive species is the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, which was first found in the River Barrow in 2010 (Caffrey et al., 2014). It quickly colonised SACs containing protected species such as sea lampreys and Atlantic salmon (Caffrey et al., 2014).      Ã‚   Since 2002, Ireland has produced two National Biodiversity Plan, with the most recent being published in 2011. The plan lays out 102 actions under 7 objectives that are largely based on Convention of Biological Diversity. These 7 objectives include incorporating conservation issues into political decisions, better management of protected habitats and their species and promotion of appreciation of biodiversity and ecosystem services (DAHG, 2011). However, this plan has a lacks a legislative basis, with much of Irelands conservation action coming because of the EU Habitats Directive. In January 2015, an interim review by the National Biodiversity Working Group (2015) of the plan found that only 24 of the 102 actions are currently implemented (Figure 2). A further 67 are in the process of being implemented and the remainder have not yet been adequately dealt with (Figure 2). Figure 2. Qualitative assessment of progress on implementation of the Actions of The Biodiversity Plan 2011-2016 (NBWG, 2015). Biodiversity provides us with essential ecosystem services such as provisions (e.g. fresh water, wood), environmental regulation (e.g. pollination, pest control, climate regulation), supporting services (e.g. soil formation) and cultural services (e.g. recreation, tourism) (Bullock et al., 2008). These services encompass every part of our lives and are critical to maintaining our standards of living and our basic well-being. Despite this, the public perception of conservation is often negative; it is perceived as a hindrance to the development of property, infrastructure, industry and economic progress (OConnor, 2016). Citizen science is a wonderful way to get the Irish public interested in conservation (Donnelly et al., 2013). A total of 20 citizen science projects run in Ireland (Donnelly et al., 2013); most of which are led by BirdWatch Ireland (Donnelly et al., 2013). Education of the next generation is key to conserving Irelands biodiversity. The role of conservation in the Primary School Curriculum needs to be further emphasized. School children tend to express more concern towards exotic, flagship species over the biodiversity that lies just outside their door (Ballouard et al., 2011) and Ireland appears to be no exception. It is our younger generations that will dictate the future of our biodiversity and therefore it is essential that we promote a deep appreciation of nature from an early age. Word count (excl. in-text citations, figure legends, references): 594 References Ballouard, J.M., Brischoux, F., Bonnet, X. (2011) Children Prioritize Virtual Exotic Biodiversity over Local Biodiversity. PLOS ONE 6(8). Bullock, C., Kretch, C. Candon, E. (2008) The Economic and Social Aspects of Biodiversity: Benefits and Costs of Biodiversity in Ireland. In: Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government (ed.). Dublin: Government of Ireland. Caffrey, J.M., Evers, S., Millane, M., Moran, H. (2011) Current status of Irelands newest invasive species the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Mueller, 1774). Aquatic Invasions 6(3): 291-299 Caffrey, J.M., Baars, J.R., Barbour, J.H., Boets, P., Boon, P., Davenport, K., Dick, J.T.A, Early, J. et al. (2014) Tackling invasive alien species in Europe: the top 20 issues. Management of Biological Invasions 5(1). DAHG (2011) Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016. Irelands National Biodiversity Plan. Department of Arts Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Ireland. Donnelly, A., Crowe, O., Regan, E., Begley, S., Caffarra, A. (2013) The role of citizen science in monitoring biodiversity in Ireland. Int J Biometeorol 58(6). Hutton, S. A. Giller, P. S. (2003) The effects of the intensification of agriculture on northern temperate dung beetle communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 40(6). Kelly, J., Tosh, D., Dale, K., Jackson, A. (2013) The economic cost of invasive and non-native species in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Report prepared for the Northern Ireland Environment Agency and the National Parks and Wildlife Service as part of Invasive Species Ireland, pp. 86. NBWG (2015) Interim Review of the Implementation of the Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016. Draft for Consultation. OConnor, à . (2016) Incorporating nature conservation objectives and measures into the Water Framework Directive. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 116B(3). OHanlon, R. (2012) Forestry in Ireland: the reforestation of a deforested country. Forestry Source 17 6(7). Rushton, S.P., Luff, M.L. Eyre, M.D. (1989) Effects of pasture improvement and management on the ground beetle and spider communities of upland grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology 26(2).

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Electoral systems in the UK and US

Electoral systems in the UK and US The United States of America and Great Britain have a lot of in common but the same times have a number of differences. The electoral systems of the UK and the US differ a lot. The United Kingdom uses different electoral systems and among them we could mention.  First Past the Post, which is used for the whole national elections and also when the local government is elected in England and Wales (earlier it was used in Scotland too). Additional Member System was invented after submission of the regional devolution in 1999 for the Scottish Parliament, Welsh meeting and London meeting.   It is rather modern invention, which was undertaken after electoral system reform.   Single Transferable Vote system is used for the election into the Assembly of the Northern Ireland and also is used for the Local administration.  Party Lists are used for the elections to the European Parliament and that is also rather modern invention and applied as the UK is the member of the European Union. And finally, Supplementary Vote, is used for the mayors election in the different cities, for example London. We see that the electoral system of the United Kingdom is rather complicated and strongly depends on the territorial division of the country. It should be noted that the United States is also dependent on the territorial division and each state has its constitutional and the elections to the local governmental organs are held due the legislation of the each state. But if we speak about electoral system globally we should mention about the Primaries, which are used for the President elections. This the first type of the election, when one candidate from the party is elected. Between the chosen candidates the general election is held and the core idea of the Primaries is in the fact that candidates from different parties should not take the votes of each other on the main elections, as their electorate is quite the same target group. Sometimes those who have lost the primaries took part in the president elections, but as independent candidates, without support of their party. Primaries could be opened, when everyone could take part in the elections and closed, when the members of the party, holding the primaries, could vote. The Primaries are the core peculiarity of the United States electoral system. It should be noted that a number of states refused from primary use of the Primaries. The different system are used for counting the votes and different schemes. A number of southern states have a tradition to support the candidate, which would take the arithmetic majority of the votes. In southern states the break between the winner and the nearest competitors. It should be noted that the both systems differ a lot and the United Kingdom has developed the electoral systems suitable for their political structure and the United States for theirs. I think that the core role in the difference between these states is that they have different political structure and this causes so severe difference in their electoral structure.   References: Michael Thrasher and Colin Rallings. British Electoral Facts. W. Wormell:London,UK, 2010 Bibby, John, and Holbrook, Thomas. Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 8th Edition. Ed. Virginia Gray and Russell L. Hanson.WashingtonD.C.: CQ Press, p. 62-100. 2004

Monday, August 19, 2019

cars Essay -- essays research papers

History of Cars By Kenny Carroll Motor car, road vehicle which first appeared in the 19th Century. The steam propelled the first cars, but such vehicles were not a success and the age of the motor car really dates from the introduction of the petrol-driven horseless carriages of Gottfrield Daimler and Karl Benz (1885-86). The internal combustion engine for these cars had been developed earlier by several engineers, most notably by the German, Nickolaus Otto, in 1876. The main components of a motor car, from then till now, are a body or chassis to which are attached all other parts - including the engine or power plant, the transmission system for transferring the drive to the wheels, and the steering, braking and suspension mechanisms for guiding, stopping and supporting the car. A few experts assembled the first cars, but Henry Ford and R. E. Olds in the USA began modern mass-production in the early 1900s. By this means, the cost of a car was drastically reduced, and more people could afford done. In most modern ca r factories component parts are put together on assembly lines - slow-moving conveyor belts. Each worker usually has a specific task, example fitting doors or crankshafts. Bodies and engines are constructed on separate assembly lines, which converge when the engine is installed. Overhead rail conveyors move heavy components to and along the assembly lines, and lower them into position. At a later stage on the assembly line such items as lamps are fitted, and electrical, braking and control systems are tested. The fully assembled car is road tested before sale. The automobile was not invented overnight. It took shape from an accumulation of technical advances that resulted in a light and efficient engine. The accepted "fathers of the modern motor car" are two Germans, Karl Benz (1844-1929) and Gottfried Daimler (1834-1900), who built their first petrol-fuelled motor vehicles within a few months of each other (1885-6). More than a hundred years earlier, the first self-propelled road vehicle had rumbled through the streets of Paris at nearly 5km/h (3mph) when Nicolas Cugnot (1725-1804) demonstrated his steam-driven wagon. The German Nikolas Otto (1832-91) made the first four-stroke internal-combustion engine in 1876 and in 1885 Daimler had installed a small four-stroke engine in a cycle frame. He drove his first four-wheeled petrol-dr... ... the advantage somewhat. Diesel engines offer economies in fuel consumption at the expense of a loss in performance; they are particularly suited to frequent stop and start duties, and as a result are widely used in taxis, buses and lorries. The gas turbine, a completely different kind of engine, was first devised at the beginning of the twentieth century (1900s) and perfected in the 1930s. It usually has a single shaft carrying a series of propeller-like fans divided into two groups, the compressor and the turbine. In an operating gas turbine air is drawn in the compressor fans and its pressure increased. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignition takes place, further increasing temperatures and pressures. The burned mixture leaves the engine through the turbine, driving the blades round. The compressor, which is often driven directly by the turbine, takes up much of the power produced, but enough is left to make the gas turbine exceedingly powerful form of engine. Efficiencies are not high, but the good power-to-weight ratio of a gas turbine makes it suitable for aircraft propulsion. A gas turbine is about three times as powerful as a piston engine of the same weight.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

A Feminist Alternative to Fetterleys Criticism of A Farewell to Arms :: Farewell Arms Essays

A Feminist Alternative to Fetterley's Criticism of A Farewell to Arms      Ã‚  Ã‚   After finishing A Farewell to Arms, I found it difficult to reconcile Judith Fetterley's feminist attack of the novel with my own personal opinions. I agree that Hemingway does kick women to the curb in his portrayal of Catherine, but my reasons for pinning this crime on Hemingway are different from hers'. Although she means well, Fetterley makes the ridiculous claim that by portraying Catherine as an angelic, selflessly loving "woman to end all women," Hemingway disguises misogynistic attitudes and a deep-seeded hatred towards the XX chromosome. This claim is not supported by the text. If we look at Hemingway through the lens of his own words, we find that his misogyny does not spring from a "too good to be true" portrait of Catherine, but rather in his tendency to cast her down into the dirt-Catherine is a dependent, baby-manufacturing trap that stifles Lieutenant Henry: "Poor, poor dear Cat. And this was the price you paid for sleeping together. This was the end of th e trap" (320). It is his penchant for sex and his need for womanly comfort that keeps Henry coming back to Catherine, not some notion of "love" or true connection. This is Hemingway's misogyny, however unintentional, unmasked.    But to get a true sense of this "anti-Fetterley" feminist view of the novel, it is important too look at the specifics of Hemingway's construction of Catherine-facts that stand in direct opposition to Fetterley's stated attacks.    First of all, Catherine is not Fetterley's unique and unattainable goddess-she is an object in Henry's universe, a feast of sensations but nothing more. She is akin to good food and good drink: "'I was made to eat. My God, yes. Eat and drink and sleep with Catherine'" (233). Indeed, Henry's thoughts about Catherine, both when he is at the front or by her side, mingle with longings for good wine and reflections on sumptuous meals. In Henry's world, a good Capri would be nice, a nice hunk of cheese would be grand, and sleeping with Catherine would be sublime. These things all equate to the satisfaction of basic human needs. Every now and then, Henry feels a grumbling in his loins-a periodic hunger for the "cheese" between Catherine's legs. Hemingway dissolves Catherine into the least common denominator-the object, devoid of meaning or real importance (when Henry isn't hungry).

Comparing Mothers in Mother to Son by Langston Hughes and GIRL by Jamaica Kincaid :: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays

Mothers in Mother to Son by Langston Hughes and GIRL by Jamaica Kincaid In order to build a strong, grounded house a person must use brick and cement. A brick is used to build the house, but yet it is the cement that molds and keeps the house together and intact. A family encompasses the same basic rules and needs. The father is the provider for his family, sort of like the brick, but it is the mother who holds the responsibility of teaching right from wrong, and they are the ones who keep strong when everything else is going wrong. Now days there are many single-mother families and the father is non-existent. Therefore, a mother plays a very strong, dominant, and essential role in her family. Mothers always want their children to do right and most of all; want their daughters to be bright young women. In the poem "GIRL", by Jamaica Kincaid, a daughter is remembering all of the things her mother tried to advise her of. The girl in the poem is never given a name because the poem sort of symbolizes how all mothers are when their daughters are growing up. They try to teach them right from wrong. The mother recommends such things as, "don't squat down to play marbles-you are not a boy you know", "don't throw stones at blackbirds, because it might not be a blackbird at all", and, "on Sundays try to walk like a lady and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming". The mother is only trying to teach her daughter to carry herself in such a manner that is lady-like. In the end of the poem the mother suggests that the daughter, "always squeeze bread to make sure it's fresh". The daughter then replied, "but what if the baker won't let me feel the bread?" Her mother was in complete dismay by her daughter's response, "you mean to say that after all you are really going to be the kind of woman who the baker won't let near the bread?" Mothers feel that they do have a certain obligation to mold their children. The mother is frightened that after all she has taught her daughter she won't grow up to be a lady. The role of a mother is not only to distinguish to her children right from wrong, but are also there as a helping hand and guide.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Honda and Hero Group

Ancillarisation and Sub-contracting in India started simultaneously with the Govt. setting up enterprises almost in all the core sectors viz. manufacturing equipment for Defence/ Railways/ Telecommunications, Heavy Electricals, Electronic, Chemical, Fertiliser, Petroleum/ Petrochemicals, Ship & Aircraft manufacturing and various other engineering and processing industries. The large industries notably HMT and other Public Sector undertaking (PSUSs) started sub-contracting the standard and low technology items to small-scale industries which developed a sound base of ancillarisation, helped proliferations and development of industries. The controlling agency of PSUs i. e. Bureau of Public Enterprises in consultation with Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO) framed the guidelines in 1978 for promoting linkages between small & large Industries through ancillarisation. PSUs were required to concentrate on core activities of design, development, research and manufacturing critical items thereby sub-contracting the standard items (for which technology was available with the small-scale industries) or the items, which could be developed in small-scale sector. PSUs were required to provide raw material technological support, tooling and testing support. The concept of ancillarisation, though limited to certain pockets/regions in the vicinity/proximity of the PSUs, proved a milestone in ushering in an era of sub-contracting amongst the Indian Industries. There was continuous effort by PSUs to indigenise/develop the items through ancillary industries/SSIs which resulted in technological/qualitative development of the latter and further cemented/enhanced the bonds of Sub-contracting partnership. The combination of Govt. PSUs/private sector large industries and Ancillary Industries combinations worked as a model of partnership and Sub-contracting with assured orders to Ancillary Industries by providing the assistance of technology assistance, specialized manufacturing facility, raw material, tooling and testing facilities and financial assistance in certain cases to ancillary industries. Large industries in private sector such as Telco, Escorts, Eicher, Ashok Leyland, Mahindra & Mahindra, Punjab Traches have also developed a chain of their ancillaries and major percentage of their components are sub-contracted. The private sector has provided good base for partnership & sub-contracting in India as was done by Govt. PSUs. Case Study: Hero Group – Growth Models The Hero Group has done business differently right from the start and that is what has helped us to achieve break-through in the competitive two-wheeler market. The Group's low key, but focussed, style of management has earned the company plaudits amidst investors, employees, vendors and dealers, as also worldwide recognition. The growth of the Group through the years has been influenced by a number of factors: The Hero Group through the Hero Cycles Division was the first to introduce the concept of just-in-time inventory. The Group boasts of superb operational efficiencies. Every assembly line worker operates two machines simultaneously to save time and improve productivity. The fact that most of the machines are either developed or fabricated in-house, has resulted in low inventory levels. In Hero Cycles Limited, the just-in-time inventory principle has been working since the beginning of production in the unit and is functional even till date. The raw material vendors bring in the goods get paid instantly and by the end of the day the finished product is rolled out of the factory. This is the Japanese style of production and in India, Hero is probably the only company to have mastered the art of the just-in-time inventory principle. Ancillarisation: An integral part of the Group strategy of doing business differently was providing support to ancillary units. There are over 300 ancillary units today, whose production is dedicated to Hero's requirements and also a large number of other vendors, which include some of the better known companies in the automotive segment. The Munjals have gone much beyond the conventional definition of ancillarisation, making it a point to extend technical and managerial support to these ancillaries. These ancillary units are manned by friends, relatives, ex-employees or close associates of the Munjal family since the Group patriarch, Mr Brijmohan Lall, â€Å"†¦ never wanted to march alone. † Employee Policy: Another Striking feature within the Hero Group is the commitment and dedication of its workers. There is no organised labour union and family members of employees find ready employment within Hero. The philosophy with regard to labour management is â€Å"Hero is growing, grow with Hero. † When it comes to workers' benefits, the Hero Group is known for providing facilities, further ahead of the industry norms. Long before other companies did so, Hero was giving its employees a uniform allowance, as well as House Rent Alowance (HRA) and Leave Travel Allowance (LTA). Extra benefits took the form of medical check-ups, not just for workers, but also for the immediate family members. Dealer Network: The relationship of the Munjals with their dealers is unique in its closeness. The dealers are considered a part of the Hero family. A nation-wide dealer network comprising of over 5,000 outlets, the Munjals have a formidable distribution system in place. Sales agents from Hero travel to all the corners of the country, visiting dealers and send back daily postcards with information on the stock position that day, turnover, fresh purchases, anticipated demand and also competitor action in the region. The manufacturing units have a separate department to handle dealer complaints and problems and the first response is always given in 24 hours. Financial Planning: The Hero Group benefits from the Group Chairman's financial acumen and his grasp on technology, manufacturing and marketing. Group Company, Hero Cycles Limited has one of the highest labour productivity rates in the world. In Hero Honda Motors Limited, the focus is on financial and raw material management and a low employee turnover. Consolidated Family Business: The Hero Group is a strong family run business – there is no other Group that has so successfully managed to stay together for nearly 50 years. The system is to bring in any new family member, coming of age, within the fold of the existing business or set him up in a new business. The third generation is already actively involved in existing as well as the new initiatives within the Group. The Group's future is being consolidated with the same zeal by the second and the third generations of the family, aided by workers who typify the hardy spirit of the Punjab. Diversification: Throughout the years of mammoth growth, the Group Chairman, Mr Lall has actively looked at diversification. A significant level of backward integration in its manufacturing activities has been substantial in the Group's growth and led to the establishment of the Hero Cycles Cold Rolling Division, Munjal and Sunbeam Castings, Munjal Auto Components and Munjal Showa Limited amongst other component-manufacturing units. Then there were the expansion into the automotive segment with the setting up of Majestic Auto Limited, where the first indigenously designed moped, Hero Majestic, went into commercial production in 1978. Then came Hero Motors which introduced Hero Puch, in collaboration with global technology leader Steyr Daimler Puch of Austria. Hero Honda Motors was established in 1984 to manufacture 1000 cc motorcycles. The Munjals also took a foray into other segments like exports, financial services, information technology, which includes customer response services and software development. Further expansion is expected in the areas of Insurance and Telecommunication. In Conclusion: The Hero Group's phenomenal growth is the result of constant innovations, a close watch on costs and the dynamic leadership of the Group Chairman, characterized by an ethos of entrepreneurship, of right attitudes and building stronger relationships with investors, partners, vendors and dealers and customers.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Discussion of the theoretical and practical implications

criminology school of interpretation of crime The focal point of this paper is to present a discussion on the theoretical and practical implications under Marxist criminology school of interpretation of crime. This is to identify and evaluate the basic perception of crime from a perception of the Marxist philosophy. It can well be ascertained that Critical Criminology is moving on towards a new school of perception that originated during the advent of the 1990s. Under this parameter Marxism is completely excluded as it is regarded as element of the old school by the new interpreters of criminology. However, it can also be mentioned that in spite of this theoretical shift in a fundamental sense Marxism is still a useful medium of interpretation of state intervention of crime along with ascertaining criminal justice system and crime analysis. It would be interesting to know that according to Stuart Russell, â€Å"as the hallucinatory effects of postmodernism wear off along with the illusions many still harbour that capitalism has a future, Marxism will once again be able to play the pivotal role it rightfully deserves in Critical Criminology.† (Russell, 130, 2) In the same context it is relevant to mention that though the method of analysis and class division interpretation system is an effective measure of evaluation of crime with capital based approach of breakdown of problems, Marxism, however, lacks the current up gradation needed for the 21st century. At the same time it is important to juxtapose the basic principals of other school of philosophies with the basic philosophies of Marxism to harvest better result in the overall sense. Thus a combination of Post-Critical Criminology and new Critical Criminology could be extremely fruitful in this context. (Kar, 241, 3-4) On the other hand the ideas of Regina Austin can also be taken into consideration where it is argued that there are certain racial inequalities within the judiciary system. Regina Austin mentions that the basic problem starts with the discriminating act by the government and this discrimination by the law ultimately leads to the point when the deprived community starts disobeying the law or judiciary system altogether as they bear little or no faith in the system. (Austin, 301, 2) it can be well ascertained that with the application of Marxist criminology this part of the unwanted judiciary system can well be eradicated. Thus the importance of Marxist philosophy within the parameters of criminology remains relevant till date and it would be most helpful to depend on the perception of Marxism in this context of studies. (Lamb, 32, 1) In the conclusion it would be relevant to quote Stuart Russell who mentions that â€Å"despite the cynical pronouncements of those who have prematurely buried Marxism, there is great hope for the future of Marxism in Critical Criminology.† (Russell, 130, 2) It is true that the relevance of Marxism in the field of Critical Criminology is yet to be utilized in its full extent but with better formulation and updated interpretation it is possible to reach its optimum point with positive impacts. However, it should also be noted that the formulation should be done with proper methodology that should be based upon the initial affirmative concepts of Marxism with proper implementation and alignment with the 21st century. (King, 143, 5) References: Russell, Stuart; The Continuing Relevance of Marxism to Critical Criminology; Critical criminology, Vol.11, No.2 (May) 2002. Richmond, BC: American Society of Criminology, Division on Critical Criminology, c1996-. pp.113-135. Austin, Regina; â€Å"The Black Community†, Its Lawbreakers, and a Politics of Identification; Critical race theory: the cutting edge / edited by Richard Delgado. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995. Pp.293-303. Kar, P; History of Psychology and related application of Psychology; Dasgupta & Chatterjee. 2006. Pg. 241 King, H; Criminology Today; HBT & Brooks Ltd. 2001. Pg. 143 Lamb, Davis; Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata; National Book Trust. 2004. Pg. 32 (I am unable to use the third pdf article as it has been found to be decoded wrongly or is corrupted- as there is very little time to communicate and rectify I am giving it a go with the existing 2 pdfs. Plus I have incorporated 3 more books to defend the paper)

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Genetically Modified Food Should Be Banned or Not? Essay

Nowadays a problem of genetically modified food is widespread all over the world. GM foods are genetically modified using biotechnology. More and more GM foods appear on the shelves of our stores and supermarkets nowadays, and make their way into our kitchens. GM foods are designed for greater resistance to viruses and pests, higher nutritional value and longer shelf life. However, their safety, potential risks and ethical concerns are still being debated. So, should genetically modified crops be banned or not? Proponents of GM foods ensure that these foods are safe for human consumption, but critics argue that their effects have not been studied long enough. First argument for banning GM foods is that it badly affects our health and well-being. Some studies have linked consumptions of GM foods to liver and kidney problems. The antibiotics and hormones given to cows and chickens are found in our bodies and we don’t know yet the extent to which these cause chronic disease. Moreover genetic engineering could introduce allergens into foods, causing allergic reactions in people who eat the foods. Another argument is that GM food does not benefit people, just large corporations that produce and sell them. In the most cases the vegetables are modified to look better and be larger so that these companies can make more money. They do not add to the taste or freshness of nutrition of the food. On the other hand GM products along with disadvantages have their benefits too. A lot of people believe that genetically modified foods can help to solve the food crisis in future, and so help humanity to survive. Firstly, all of sorts of GM plants are stable against illnesses and mean weather. Also, GM food is cold tolerant. An antifreeze gene has been introduced into plants such as tobacco and potato. With this antifreeze gene, these plants are able to tolerate cold temperatures that normally would kill unmodified seedlings. Secondly, they ripen fast and keep longer than usual plants. It is easier to transport them and keep fresh for a long time. In my opinion, genetic engineering should be banned because young generation will have different diseases because of eating unhealthful food. Of course, this is a huge industry nowadays that obviously can’t be stopped, but I believe that there are other ways to save people from hunger. References: 1. â€Å"Genetically Modified Crops Should be Banned† 2. Murphy, Tom. â€Å"The Arguments for and Against Genetically Modified (GM) Food. † N. p. , 15 06 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. 3. Gray, Louise. â€Å"Ten tweets for and against GM†. Environment Correspondent 4:04PM GMT 24 Jan 2011 4. â€Å"Should Genetically Modified Foods (GM Foods) Be Banned? – Facts & Infographic†.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

North West Case Essay

Executive Summary North West Company will move towards a â€Å"pull strategy† within its supply chain. Pull production is based on actual or consumed demand and individual store managers will monitor this. The benefit of localization for North West will be a higher inventory turnover rate. The benefit for customers will be a more customized shopping experience based on their community. The potential risks are there are high costs involved in implementing a new database system and procurement decisions will be divided between category managers and store managers. We will implement a new database system and train store managers to purchase inventory based on local and regional needs. This system will allow stores to be a part of their community and customer needs can be better met. Issue Identification These are the following issues that must be addressed: Forecasting and Procurement – Low Inventory Turnover Rate Product Receiving and Shipping – Reducing Cycle Time Merchandising and Selling – Interorganizational Information Systems Store Managers – Preference Implications Environment and Root Cause Analysis Environment North West Company has a lower inventory turnover rate than most of its competitors and that is due to the use of a â€Å"push strategy† within the supply chain. Customer demands are not taken into consideration and they often have to shop at competitors to meet their needs. Issue Identification Forecasting and Procurement – Low Inventory Turnover Rate Forecasting and procurement use a â€Å"push strategy† where production decisions are based on long term historical forecasting. Category managers look at past trends and base their buying decisions on past sales. Purchase orders are submitted at least 4 months prior to the intended selling period. This does not allow for a response to changes in demand. This can lead to overstocking inventory, which is what causes the low turnover rate. The relationship with suppliers is streamlined because orders are placed in large batches and way ahead of time. The lack of customization allows suppliers to respond quickly and production is ahead of schedule. Product Receiving and Shipping – Reducing Cycle Time Products arrive at the distribution center approximately two months prior to the selling period. Inventory is separated between temporary and regular on two floors. Space is optimized because of the tight managing schedule or receiving and shipping however the lead-time to distribute the merchandise is too long. Excess merchandise is â€Å"pushed† to stores and eventually ends up being marked down. Merchandising and Selling – Interorganizational Information Systems Once merchandise arrives to the stores it is immediately put on display. Rural stores often sell out of popular items and customers are left with no choice but to shop at a competitor or substitute for other items. Demand for particular stores is not forecasted and this is an opportunity cost. The product assortment is kept fresh throughout the selling period by splitting up shipments throughout the period. There is a lack of information between stores and what each store/region requires. Store Managers – Preference Implications Category managers currently make all procurement decisions. Individual  stores have no say in what they will be selling and cannot combat customer demands. Although a costly process, if managers are given the ability to customize their inventory stores will be able to cater to their specific communities. Alternatives and Options Forecasting and Procurement – Inventory Turnover Pro: Forecasting and procurement is a fairly simple process because orders are placed in large batches and way ahead of time based on historical data. Con: It takes longer to respond to changes in demand, which results in overstocking. Alternative: Dividing inventory into two categories – General and Seasonal/Customized. General merchandise with consistent sales will maintain the â€Å"push strategy† as the process is less costly and decisions are based on data. Seasonal/Customized inventory will adopt a â€Å"pull strategy† where store managers will have the opportunity to make decisions based on their immediate environment. Product Receiving and Shipping – Reducing Cycle Time Pro: The distribution center is already divided into two floors – one for immediate shipping and the other for storage. This makes for easy access to what needs to be shipped right away and what does not. Con: Two months is a long time to be housing inventory that is projected for a specific period. Demands can change in this time frame and the distribution center is left with no choice other than to â€Å"push† inventory to store warehouses. This is what leads to unnecessary markdowns. Alternative: Placing orders with suppliers at a later date will reduce the time inventory sits at the distribution center. The center already runs  smoothly and on schedule so pushing back shipments should not be a problem. This will allow orders to go in at a later date where inventory demands might change. Merchandising and Selling – Interorganizational Information Systems Pro: Merchandise is immediately put on display so stores do not have to stock inventory. Con: If a store runs out of certain products they cannot meet demand. Similarly, if a product does not sell it will eventually go into clearance. Alternative: Creating a database between stores that shows inventory of each store will allow inventory to move easily from one location to the next. Stores should hold some general merchandise in order to allow a continuous flow of turnover. Store Managers – Preference Implications Pro: Store managers can customize orders based on customer needs and local trends. There is opportunity to have higher inventory turnover because of localization. Con: Manager’s preferences can be biased and oppose that of the company as a whole. Alternative: Store managers should be given proper training and a guideline of what they can purchase. Managers are limited to â€Å"OTB† dollars. Recommendations The following is a summary of my recommendations: Categorize inventory into two sections: General and Seasonal/Customized Maintain the current system for General merchandise  Seasonal/Customized inventory to move to a â€Å"pull system† Within the â€Å"pull system†, seasonal/customized inventory is ordered at a later date to reduce storage time at distribution center Create storage space within individual stores for General merchandise Implementing a database for all stores to view on hand inventory Training store managers to use the database Developing an allowance for store managers to purchase products for their individual stores Implementation The first step is to categorize inventory between general and seasonal/customized. This will be appointed to category managers. General inventory will maintain the system that is already in place and will be consistent for all 147 stores. Once seasonal/customized inventory is identified, forecasting should be done two months prior to purchasing period. This responsibility will be that of the store manager. Cycle time will be reduced as the distribution center will now only be a gathering point for incoming shipments rather than a storage facility. Individual stores should allow for some storage space for General inventory and overstock. North West will need to invest at least $10 million to develop a database. The database will take a month to implement and we should consider up to two months for training of store managers. The category managers will determine the allowance that each store manager is given. We can look at data to determine which stores are most successful and calculate an allowance based on individual store inventory turnover. The entire plan should take no longer than six months to implement. Monitor and Control Timely checks should be made to see if the implementation plan is successful. Once inventory has been categorized and a database has been developed, category managers should measure the store managers’ performance. This includes examining if inventory turnover has gone up. Customers can be given surveys to measure whether or not their needs are being met. The  reduction in markdowns should be measured as well in order to determine whether or not this is a feasible system.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Business communication Outline Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business communication - Outline Example They vary mainly in the decision making process, that is, in the Centralized Structure, the topmost management controls all the decision making and exercises strict control over the lower layers of the structure. In a Decentralized Structure however, everyone is involved in the decision making process A well designed Organization structure gives out the authority and responsibility to the respective individuals. If each person in the organization knows what his role is, a lot of chaos can be avoided in the organization. ( With the help of the organizational chart, individuals can understand their roles and how to relate to one another in the organization. An organization chart gives the pattern of communication and coordination in the organization. This would also hinder the exchange of information and efficient problem solving. ( Hopgood Sports Limited: Problems In spite of good business acumen of the management, there seem to be certai n problems with the running of Hopgood Sports Limited, in terms of organization, or technically, the lack thereof. Some of the problems are: 1. Staffing problems: Hopgood Sports Limited seems to be understaffed, in spite of the fact that they can afford it quite easily. 2. Inaccessibility of decision maker: The management, i.e. Mr. Hopgood, is not always easily accessible because he is always on the move from one store to another. This causes a lot of decision making to be put on hold and also may cost various opportunities for Hopgood Sports Limited. 3. Technological backwardness, with physical distances between the various stores acting as a major impediment for efficient management 4. The Organizational Structure of Hopgood Sports Limited also is not up to the mark. This has been discussed further below. Current Organization Structure of Hopgood Sports Limited: From the above illustrated current organizational structure of Hopgood Sports Limited, we can see that there is no unifo rmity in the structure, that is, in the different branches of the store. The structure of each store is different from the other in terms of number of employees and accountability. This might be fine for now but will lead to a lot of chaos and confusion in the future, when Hopgood Sports Limited is on the pathway to further expansion. A lack of uniformity in the structure also will leave the employees confused when it comes to inter store communication as they may not know with whom they must communicate what information. Also, it does not clearly explain the accountability of the employees. Recommendations for Hopgood sports limited Hopgood Sports is a good, stable business with few glitches that a well designed Organizational Structure can rectify. Here are some of the recommendations for Hopgood Sports Limited. 1. Mr. Hopgood seems to have bitten off more than he can chew. He is seriously overworked and the main reason for this is that Hopgood Sports Limited is not well staffed. He should hire more people for employment in his various stores. Since, he can afford to do that, after recruitment and apportionment, he can take a backseat and concentrate on supervising the running of the place instead of running all around the city that might make Hopgood Sports Limited more susceptible to expansion. 2. Mr. Hopgood’s inaccessibility can easily be solved with the above point. If he were to be at a particular store as head office, he could be

Monday, August 12, 2019

My travels around the world Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

My travels around the world - Essay Example On the first day, I have arrived by plane from UAE to Paris, taken my bags and then went to the hotel. I have arranged my room before sleeping. On the second day, I went to the Montmartre area to see the Basilique du Sacrà ©-Coeur and walked up to the metro that would take me to the Eiffel Tower. Going up the tower for a full view of the city is a prime Paris tourist activity. At night, I have taken dinner then made my way over again to see the beautiful Eiffel Tower at night. At night, the Eiffel Tower, with its lights, is a beautiful sight to behold. The next day I have gone to the Louvre for an afternoon of art, culture, and history. I have taken lunch at the food court in the Carrousel du Louvre under the glass pyramid. The next item on my itinerary was to go up to the second most famous places in Paris, the Arc de Triomphe, for a panoramic view of Paris. On the fourth day, I have stayed at the hotel because I was very tired. In the next two days, I have gone to the Shanzelize S treet to do some shopping.   On March 8, 2013, I arrived by plane in Madrid, took my bags to the hotel and went to sleep. The next day, I went to the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum and chose this Museum because it has covered more contemporary art periods. I then walked up to Parque Del Retiro, one of the best city parks I have ever seen. It is very beautiful. In Parque Del Retiro, there are statues, a lake with boating, all of the kinds of plants and flowers and plenty of places for sitting and relaxing.

Talking Styles Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Talking Styles - Research Paper Example A person can be whoever one can be in written form. One can be as strong as Superman or even as glamorous as Elizabeth Taylor. What is written though at times are not the same with regards to the real world. With the latter stated, the Language Style Matching website would not be as accurate as one would want it to be. Comparing two different written materials on the website would be as accurate as how the site was programmed to be. There are guidelines that the program follows so that there can be a sort of comparison. However, there are still loopholes in websites like these as there are not much literary works and writing styles are stored in its program as basis on how related written materials are. According to Bower (2010), "Language-style matching diminished as each relationship soured. Notable declines occurred when Jung left Freuds psychoanalytic group, when Elizabeth Barrett welcomed deaths approach while her husband dreaded it and when Plath and Hughes marriage fell apart." In this passage, even the writer himself is aware that there would be differences which will come out between writers and their works as time passes by. There is no definite guarantee that writing styles would stay as it was from one article to another. Interpersonal relationships rely on how people would interact as a whole and not just by a persons writing style. There are those types of person who would be very aggressive when they write yet very timid when it comes to spoken interactions. Some of them on the other hand would be really aggressive on their physical interaction yet would find it difficult to express their feelings and thoughts through written words. Language style matching could play a helpful act in preparing people in expressing their thoughts and emotions. This is just a step to start a form of interaction between people. One way of breaking the ice as people would say. An author can be as

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Causes of crime in Great Britain and USA Assignment

Causes of crime in Great Britain and USA - Assignment Example United Sates and UK are some of the worst affected countries as far as criminal activities are concerned. Some people argue that poverty is the major reason behind increasing criminal activities. However, US and UK are two of the richest countries in the world and still crime rates increasing day by day in these countries. Cyber crime, burglary, organized crime, gun violence etc are some of the major criminal activities seen in United States and UK. â€Å"The UK government has published a report on February 17, 2011, concluding that the overall cost to the UK economy from cybercrime is  £27bn per year. Drug-related crime is estimated to cost the UK  £13.9 billion a year† (Cluely, 2011). On the other hand, â€Å"In 2006, the Internet Crime Complaint Center in America received and processed over 200,000 complaints. Total alleged dollar losses were more than $194 million†(Cyber crime Statistics, 2011). Cybercrime and burglary in UK and USA: Similarities and differences Cybercrime is one of the most modern crimes added to the list of organized criminal activities list. No country seems to be free from cyber crimes. Hardcore technology and online expertise are now available for rent and it is possible for even the unskilled antisocial elements to take these skills on rent basis for the execution of their criminal activities. In fact some of the organized cyber attacks which occurred in the recent times have surprised some of the highly technically skilled personnel. Kinetic weapons, power of electromagnetic energy, malicious computer code etc are some of the most common methods of cyber attacks employed by cyber terrorists. Botnets (vast numbers of compromised computers that have been infected with malicious code, and can be remotely-controlled through commands sent via the Internet) are another major tool for cybercrime, because of its effectiveness and the easiness in usage. America is facing more cyber attack threats from countries like China compared to United Kingdom. China wanted to outcast America from the superpower list and for that purpose; they are constantly engage in cyber espionage with America. China’s involvement in some of the recent cyber attacks on American computers was proved beyond doubt. The Times on 8 September 2007 reported that the Chinese military hackers have prepared a detailed plan to disable America’s aircraft battle carrier fleet with a devastating cyber attack, quoting a Pentagon report (The Times, 2007). Fox news on 24 March 2010 reported that the cyber attack on Google and US companies are part of suspected Chinese government operation (Fox News, 2010). In short, America is facing cyber crimes not only from individuals, but also from other countries as well. On the other hand, UK seems to be facing fewer threats from other countries as far as cyber espionage is concerned. In fact China and America are the two countries accused of spreading cyber espionage because of their superior technologies in IT and computer sectors. Cluely, (2011) has pointed out that total money losses in cyber crimes in UK has already crossed the ?27 billion per year.- ?9.2 billion comes from theft of intellectual propert

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