Friday, May 31, 2019

Analysis of The World of Wrestling by Roland Barthes Essay -- The Worl

Analysis of The universe of Wrestling by Roland BarthesRoland Barthess essay on The World of Wrestling draws analogically on the ancient theatre to contextualize wrestling as a cultural myth w here the hot air of the ancient is preserved and the spectacle of excess is displayed. Barthess critique -- which is above all a rewriting of what was to understand what is -- is useful here in so far as it may be applied back to theatre as another open-air spectacle. But in this case, not the theatre of the ancients, but the affection English p maturateant presents the locale for discussing the sport of presentation, or, if you prefer, the performance of the sport. More specifically, what we see by looking at the Harrowing of Hell -- the dramatic moment in the cycle plays that narratizes doctrinal repurchase more graphically than any other play in the cycle -- as spectacle offers a matrix for the multiple kins amid performance and audience and the manner of producing that performance wh ich, in turn, necessarily produces the audience. The implications of the spectacle could sensibly be applied to the complete texts of the cycle plays, and perhaps more appropriately to the abounding range of the pageant and its support festivities. The direction of pseudo-historical criticism, especially of the Elizabethan stage, certainly provides a well-plowed ground for advancing the festive and carnivalesque inherently present in the formation and event of theater. Nevertheless, my discussion here is both more limited and more expansive its limits atomic number 18 constructed by the choice of an individual play recurrent through and through the four extant manuscripts of what has begin to be called the Corpus Christi plays its expansion is expressed through a delivery that aims to implicate the particular moment of this play in the operations of a sovereign church-state apparatus, which is, ostensibly, a model of maintaining hegemony in Western culture. The Harrowing prov ides a singular instance in which the mechanisms of control of the apparatus seem to extend and exploit their relationship with the audience (i.e. congregation). The play is constructed beyond the canonized operations of the sacred, originating a narrative beyond (yet within) the authorized vulgate it is constructed only through church authority yet maint... ...thorizing. It seems we are not merely to claim, as Hardin Craig does, that the plays are a theological intelligence motivated by structural imagination that lasted from age to age in the evolution of a great cycle of mystery plays. Instead, we should interrogate the multiple dimensions of artistry and artificiality of the play our task is to ask how these plays operate as a performative moment approaching directly from the dominant arms of orthodoxy while still being influenced by the severely limited mass culture. We may find, then, at the center of the controlling mechanisms of the church-state apparatus, the necessitat ed intrust for community that even Satan validates and proclaimsNay, I pray the do not soVmthynke the better in thy myndeOr els let me with the go,I pray the leyffe me not behyndeThe desire, of course, extends past Satans plea, for the homogenized desire of the congregation ultimately -- which is in history written and yet to be -- is directed toward a different answer from deliverer one that affirms salvation and again confirms the churchs orthodox pageantry of performance. Analysis of The World of Wrestling by Roland Barthes Essay -- The WorlAnalysis of The World of Wrestling by Roland BarthesRoland Barthess essay on The World of Wrestling draws analogically on the ancient theatre to contextualize wrestling as a cultural myth where the grandiloquence of the ancient is preserved and the spectacle of excess is displayed. Barthess critique -- which is above all a rewriting of what was to understand what is -- is useful here insofar as it may be applied back to theatr e as another open-air spectacle. But in this case, not the theatre of the ancients, but the Middle English pageant presents the locus for discussing the sport of presentation, or, if you prefer, the performance of the sport. More specifically, what we see by looking at the Harrowing of Hell -- the dramatic moment in the cycle plays that narratizes doctrinal redemption more graphically than any other play in the cycle -- as spectacle offers a matrix for the multiple relationships between performance and audience and the means of producing that performance which, in turn, necessarily produces the audience. The implications of the spectacle could sensibly be applied to the complete texts of the cycle plays, and perhaps more appropriately to the full range of the pageant and its concomitant festivities. The direction of pseudo-historical criticism, especially of the Elizabethan stage, certainly provides a well-plowed ground for advancing the festive and carnivalesque inherently present in the establishment and event of theater. Nevertheless, my discussion here is both more limited and more expansive its limits are constructed by the choice of an individual play recurrent through the four extant manuscripts of what has come to be called the Corpus Christi plays its expansion is expressed through a delivery that aims to implicate the particular moment of this play in the operations of a dominant church-state apparatus, which is, ostensibly, a model of maintaining hegemony in Western culture. The Harrowing provides a singular instance in which the mechanisms of control of the apparatus appear to extend and exploit their relationship with the audience (i.e. congregation). The play is constructed beyond the canonized operations of the sacred, originating a narrative beyond (yet within) the authorized vulgate it is constructed only through church authority yet maint... ...thorizing. It seems we are not merely to claim, as Hardin Craig does, that the plays are a theolog ical intelligence motivated by structural imagination that lasted from age to age in the development of a great cycle of mystery plays. Instead, we should interrogate the multiple dimensions of artistry and artificiality of the play our task is to ask how these plays operate as a performative moment coming directly from the dominant arms of orthodoxy while still being influenced by the severely limited mass culture. We may find, then, at the center of the controlling mechanisms of the church-state apparatus, the necessitated desire for community that even Satan validates and proclaimsNay, I pray the do not soVmthynke the better in thy myndeOr els let me with the go,I pray the leyffe me not behyndeThe desire, of course, extends past Satans plea, for the homogenized desire of the congregation ultimately -- which is in history written and yet to be -- is directed toward a different answer from Jesus one that affirms salvation and again confirms the churchs orthodox pageantry of perform ance.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Merchant Of Venice :: Free Merchant of Venice Essays

The merchant Of VeniceAct 1In the fist act, Antonio is introduced as the Merchant of Venice. A friend ofhim, Bassanio, desperately needs m unityy because all of his m geniusy is on his shipsand he wants to go to Belmont to visit the woman of his dreams, Portia.Therefore he goes to Antonio to direct if he is willing to go to usurer and askhim if he can have 3000 ducats. Antonio agrees and goes to Shylock and explainsthat he has to pay it back within 3 months. If he doesnt do this, he may cutone pound of his fair flesh...Act 2In Belmont, the casket bond proceeds with two already rejected, news comes thatBassanio is at Portias gate. Meanwhile, Shylock is left bewailing the loss ofhis ducats and his daughter that has run away with Lorenzo and the treasure.Shylock doesnt uniform this at all because he really doenst like the Christiansand Lorenzo is a ChristianAct 3Jessica is now together with Lorenzo. She is a Jew and hes a Christian.Jessica is embarrassed to be a Jew is planning to c hange religion for Lorenzo.Shylock is still looking for them and is very mad when he finds out that she hassold a ring, that was given to Shylock by his wife, for a monkey. MeanwhileBassanio is picking one of the caskets and takes the correct one the leadencasket. He may now marry Portia. Because Antonio hasnt paid back the 3000ducats he had lend from Shylock, Shylock may have one pound of his fair flesh.Shylock takes it to court...Act 4Still in the court of law, Portia and Nerissa have disguised themselves asdoctor and clerk. Shylock wants his revenge on the Christians because theytreat him like a dog and spit on him. He wants his bond and the one pound ofthe flesh of Antonio. Portia very smartly knows how to trick him by saying thatit doesnt say in the bond that any blood can be spilt and that he has to takeexactly one pound of the flesh. No to a greater extent and no less. Shylock has to give upbecause he cant deny this. Antonio is safe Bassanio has given the ring thathe had got from Portia to the doctor and Gratiano has given the ring that he hadgot from Nerissa to the clerk... They had utter to their women that they wouldnever give the rings away.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Working-Class Writer Essay -- Authors

David Herbert, D.H., Lawrence published his third novel, Sons and Lovers, in 1913. The story follows the Morel family. They live in The Bottoms, a small mining residential area in England, built over the remnants of Hell Row. The Morel family is unhappy, because of the relationship between Walter, the father, and Gertrude, the stick. Walter drinks too much, does little to provide Gertrude with emotional satisfaction, while Gertrude feels superior, and is unhappy with the familys tender status. Searching for emotional satisfaction, Gertrude turns to her children for comfort. At first, her affection focusses on the eldest son, William, but after he become ill and dies, Gertrude shifts her attention to Paul, the youngest son. There are many another(prenominal) parallels between the novel and Lawrences own personal life. Similar to the Morels, the Lawrences family lived in a working-class community in Nottinghamshire, England. Lawrences father, Arthur, worked in a mine, and was a drinker. Lawrences older brother, Ernest, passed away early in life, causing Lawrence to become the focus of Lydias affection. Similar with Paul and Miriam Leivers, Lawrence had an early relationship with Jessie Chambers, of whom his mother did not approve. Like Pauls relationship with Clara Dawes, Lawrence engaged in an affair with Alice Dax, a married woman with a family. Sons and Lovers is a semi-autobiographical novel in which Lawrence draws from his own personal relationships with his parents, his childhood sweetheart, and adult lover as the basis for his fictional characters, which he ultimately uses to build the foundation for his philosophical ideas regarding industrialism and love.In the story, Walter represents the personification of Lawrences issues ... ...d Walter Morel after his father, Arthur, and Gertrude Morel on his mother, Lydia. Furthermore, Lawrence represents himself in the protagonist, Paul Morel, the son of Walter and Gertrude Morel. Works CitedB ecket, Fiona. D.H. Lawrence. London and advanced York Routledge, 2002. 7-8. Print.Burgess, Anthony. Flame Into Being The Life and Work of D.H. Lawrence. New York mandrel House, 1985. 57. Print. Bergquist, Carolyn. Lawrences Sons And Lovers. Explicator 53.3 (1995) 167-170. Academic Search Premier. Web. 9 May 2012.Kearney, Martin. Major Short Stories of D.H. Lawrence A Handbook. New York and London Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998. 97. Print.Maddox, Brenda. D.H. Lawrence The Story of a Marriage. New York Simon & Schuster, 1994. 63, 78, 93. Print. Worthen, John. D.H. Lawrence The Life of an Outsider. New York Counterpoint, 2005. 30, 83. Print.

Charles de Secondat, Baron De La Brede Et De Montesquieu Essay

     Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu was born in1689 to a French distinguished family. "His family tree could be traced 350years, which in his view made its name neither good nor bad." (TheEncyclopedia of Social Sciences, p. 68) Montesquieus views started tobe shaped at a very(prenominal) early age. A beggar was chosen to be his godfatherto remind him of his obligations to the poor.     Montesquieus education started at the age of 11 when he was sent toJuilly, a school kept up(p) by the Congregation of the Oratory. From1705 to 1709 he studied law in Bordeaux. "From 1705 to 1709 he was alegal apprentice in Paris. There he came to know nearly of the mostadvanced thinkers of his time Fredet, the Abbe Lama, andBoulainvilliers.(Ibid.). In 1716 Montesquieu got a seat of president amortier in the parlement of Guyenne from his deceased uncle. Eventhough he did not standardised his job he believed parliaments w ere necessary tocontrol the monarchs.      In 1721 Montesquieu published the Persian Letters, which he beganworking on while studying in Bordeaux. The book was a success. In thePersian Letters Montesquieu showed how relative all of the French valueswere. Even though the technique used in this witty book was antecedentlyused by other writers, Montesquieu did a great job making fun of theEuropean values. At that time he already believed in the misdeed ofEuropean practices such as religious prosecution. The book gave rootsfor Montesquieus later arguments and ideas.      When in 1728 Montesquieu, with the help of his Parisian connections hegot elected to the French Academy, he was happy to sell his office ofpresident a mortier. In the course of the next three years he traveledall over Europe, tour Germany, Hungary, England, Holland, Austria,and Italy. It is not surprising that out of his European tour thecountry which had the greatest impact on his later work (just like it did on Voltaires) was England. During his stay on that point he was elected afellow of the Royal Society.      After he returned to France the second portion of his carrier hadbegan. He became a full time writer, travelling between his La Bredeestate and Paris. It is during this period that the C... ...e world will always be remembered.     Montesquieu can easily be considered a model Enlightment figure. Hisideas produce a mild paradox. He wanted change for the better withoutcrushing the current government. He wanted to educate the people of acountry, but was not a radical, and therefore didnt include thepeasants. He respected reason, and used it to help the mankind bycreating an idle society. He critisised religion, and yet had faith inGod. As a whole he tried to improve things without turning the worldupside down. He was the model figure for the steady advancement of thehuman civilization. BIBLIOGRAPHY1. & nbsp   Hollier, Denis , A saucily History of French Literature, HarvardUniversity Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1989.2.     The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, p. 467-476.3.     Loy, John Robert, Montesquieu, New York, Twayne Publishers, 1968.4.     A History of World Societies volume II, Houghton Mifflin Company,Boston, p. 669-679.5.     Robert Shedlock, Lessons on World History, 1980, p. 38a-38c.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Is Censorship Justified? Essay -- social issues

Is Censorship Justified?Ever wondered the reason behind racial discrimination, sexual discrimination, children committing crime or violence? The master(prenominal) reason is that censorship is not the right way imposed or there is a need of censorship in the society. Censorship is the suppression of ideas and information that certain spate, individual, groups or government officials find it objectionable, offensive or dangerous on others. There are varieties of other definitions but all have in commonalty the concept of withholding information and/or resources from those who seek it. Hence censorship is essential in society to eliminate discrimination on basis of locomote and sex, protect children, maintain stability and restore what censor sees as lost moral values. Censorship occurs when expressive materials like books, magazines, movies, videos, music or work of cheat are restricted to particular audiences based on their age or other characteristics. (http//www.ala.org/oif/ intellectualfreedeomandcensorship.html) Censorship is not a recent development. It wasnt imposed properly or there werent strict regulations before. In the article Hate Radio by Patricia J. Williams, the writer says that radio was a powerful source of media. It had influenced a kitty of people. The power of media bed change the course of history. The host on the radio such as Rush Limbaugh and Howard Stern were also influencing a lot of people. The theme was not merely the specific intolerance on hot topics as race and gender, but a much more general patronage for the world, a verbal stoning of anything different. Most of the audience on this radio shows were white and male. Most of the callers have spent their lives walling themselves off from any real invite with blacks, feminists, lesbians or gays. Rush Limbaugh tell his audience what you believe inside, you can talk about it in the marketplace. Unfortunately whats inside is then mistaken for whats outside, treated empirical a nd political reality. Most of the talks on the radio were being racist against the blacks. This had influenced so much that a statistics showed that 53 percent of people in America agree that blacks and Latinos are less intelligent than whites, and a majority believed that blacks are lazy, violent, welfare-dependent and unpatriotic. Hence this stereotype among the people was due to the lack of censorship.(Williams,502) ... ... surrounded by exposure to pornography and commission of violence, but this research was conducted in 1993 which is now outdated. Another point, which she emphasized, was that a greater availability of sexually explicit material seems to correlated with higher indices of gender equality. But when the sexually explicit material shows the subordination of women or women presented as sexual object who enjoy pain or humiliation, how can they be equal as men when the men are shown as the gender that enjoys subordinating women. (Strossen,550). Feminist author Dian a Russell notes in her book Rape and trade union the correlation between deviant behavior (including abuse) and pornography. She also found that pornography leads men and women to experience conflict, suffering, and sexual dissatisfaction. (http//www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/porno.html) Hence censorship is essential in order to maintain peace and stability in the society. It will decrease the crime rates. Children can be exposed to sexual matters in school in a different manner as education. Excessive amount of sexual explicit material would surely be harmful. Censorship does not have a downside and it will be a better society.

Is Censorship Justified? Essay -- social issues

Is Censorship Justified?Ever wondered the reason behind racial discrimination, sexual discrimination, children committing crime or violence? The master(prenominal) reason is that censorship is not aright imposed or there is a need of censorship in the society. Censorship is the suppression of ideas and information that trustworthy commonwealth, individual, groups or government officials find it objectionable, offensive or dangerous on others. There are varieties of other definitions but all have in harsh the concept of withholding information and/or resources from those who seek it. Hence censorship is essential in society to eliminate discrimination on basis of melt down and sex, protect children, maintain stability and restore what censor sees as lost moral values. Censorship occurs when expressive materials like books, magazines, movies, videos, music or work of artwork are restricted to particular audiences based on their age or other characteristics. (http//www.ala.org/oi f/intellectualfreedeomandcensorship.html) Censorship is not a recent development. It wasnt imposed properly or there werent strict regulations before. In the article Hate Radio by Patricia J. Williams, the writer says that radio was a powerful source of media. It had influenced a dance band of people. The power of media cannister change the course of history. The host on the radio such as Rush Limbaugh and Howard Stern were also influencing a lot of people. The theme was not merely the specific intolerance on hot topics as race and gender, but a much more general contempt for the world, a verbal stoning of anything different. Most of the audience on this radio shows were white and male. Most of the callers have spent their lives walling themselves off from any real palpate with blacks, feminists, lesbians or gays. Rush Limbaugh tell his audience what you believe inside, you can talk about it in the marketplace. Unfortunately whats inside is then mistaken for whats outside, treat ed empirical and political reality. Most of the talks on the radio were being racist against the blacks. This had influenced so much that a statistics showed that 53 percent of people in America agree that blacks and Latinos are less intelligent than whites, and a majority believed that blacks are lazy, violent, welfare-dependent and unpatriotic. Hence this stereotype among the people was due to the lack of censorship.(Williams,502) ... ... among exposure to pornography and commission of violence, but this research was conducted in 1993 which is now outdated. Another point, which she emphasized, was that a greater availability of sexually explicit material seems to fit with higher indices of gender equality. But when the sexually explicit material shows the subordination of women or women presented as sexual object who enjoy pain or humiliation, how can they be equal as men when the men are shown as the gender that enjoys subordinating women. (Strossen,550). Feminist author Diana Russell notes in her book Rape and spousals the correlation between deviant behavior (including abuse) and pornography. She also found that pornography leads men and women to experience conflict, suffering, and sexual dissatisfaction. (http//www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/porno.html) Hence censorship is essential in order to maintain peace and stability in the society. It will decrease the crime rates. Children can be exposed to sexual matters in school in a different manner as education. Excessive amount of sexual explicit material would surely be harmful. Censorship does not have a downside and it will be a better society.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Characters in Dr.Faustus

Faustus The protagonist. Faustus is a brilliant sixteenth-century scholar from Wittenberg, Germany, whose ambition for knowledge, wealth, and worldly might makes him willing to pay back the ultimate pricehis soulto Lucifer in exchange for supernatural powers. Faustuss initial tragic grandeur is diminished by the fact that he never seems completely sure of the decision to forfeit his soul and constantly wavers about whether or not to repent. His ambition is admirable and initially awesome, yet he ultimately lacks a certain inner strength. He is unable to embrace his Acherontic path wholeheartedly but is also unwilling to admit his mistake.Mephostophilis From the Hebrew, mephitz, destroyer, and tophel, liar. A devil of craft and cunning. He is the devil who comes at Faustus summoning, and the devil who serves Faustus for 24 years. In lore, Mephostophilis (also spelled Mephistopheles, or Miphostophiles, and also called Mephisto) seems to be a relative latecomer in the know hierarchy of demons. He possibly was created for the Faustus legend. In Marlowes play, Mephostophilis has layers to his personality. He admits that separation from God is anguish, and is capable of fear and pain. But he is gleefully evil, participating at all(prenominal) level in Faustus destruction.Not only does Mephostophilis get Faustus to sell his soul he also encourages Faustus to waste his twenty-four years of power. Wagner Servant to Faustus. He steals Faustus books and learns how to summon demons. At the end of the play, he seems concerned about his masters fate. Good Angel and Evil Angel Personifications of Faustus inner turmoil, who give differing advice to him at key points. Their characters also reflect Christian belief that humans are assigned guardian angels, and that devils can influence human thoughts. Valdes booster amplifier to Faustus, who teaches him the dark arts.He appears only in Act One. Cornelius Friend to Faustus, who teaches him the dark arts. He appears only in Act One. Lucifer Satan. Lucifer original meant Venus, referring to the planets brilliance. In Christian lore, Lucifer is sometimes thought to be another look up of Satan. Some traditions say that Lucifer was Satans name before the fall, while the Fathers of the Catholic Church held that Lucifer was not Satans proper(a) name but a formulate showing the brilliance and beauty of his station before the fall. He appears at a few choice moments in Doctor Faustus, and Marlowe uses Lucifer as Satans proper name.Belzebub One of Lucifers officers. A powerful demon. The Seven Deadly Sins Personifications of the Seven Deadly Sins, not acts but impulses or motivations that lead men to sinful actions. They array themselves in a pageant before Faustus, although scholars think now that this section was not written by Marlowe. Clown / Robin Robin learns demon summoning by stealing one of Faustus books. He is the chief character in a number of scenes that provide comic relief from the main story. D ick A lifter of Robins. He is one of the characters peopling the few comic relief scenes. RafeA horse ostler, or groomer, and friend to Robin. With the Clown, he summons Mephostophilis, who is none too pleased to be called. winemaker A wine merchant or a wine maker. This Vintner chases down Robin and Rafe after they steal a silver goblet from him. Carter A man who meets Faustus while carting hay to town. Faustus swindles him. Horse-Courser A man who buys Faustus horse. Faustus swindles him. Hostess An ale wench. She treats Robin and his friends kindly. The Pope Yeah, that Pope. In a move that would have pleases his Protestant audience, Marlowe depicts him as cruel, power-mad, and far from holy.Faustus plays some cheap tricks on him. Bruno A man who would be Pope, selected by the German emperor and representing the conflicts between Church and state authority. Raymond King of Hungary. He serves the Pope. Charles The German Emperor. Faustus performs at his hail. Martino Knight in t he court of the German Emperor. Friend to Benvolio and Frederick. When Benvolio seeks revenge against Faustus, Martino decides to help out of loyalty. Frederick Knight in the court of the German Emperor. Friend to Martino and Benvolio. When Benvolio seeks revenge against Faustus, Frederick decides to help out of loyalty.Benvolio Knight in the court of the German Emperor. Friend to Martino and Frederick. When Faustus humiliates him, he seeks revenge. Saxony A man attending at the court of the German Emperor. Duke of Vanholt A nobleman. Faustus performs illusions at his court. Duchess of Vanholt A noblewoman. Faustus fetches her grapes in January. Spirits in the shapes of Alexander the Great, Darius, Paramour, and Helen Faustus illusions. An Old Man A holy old man. He tries to yet Faustus by getting him to repent, and for his good deed, Faustus initially thanks him. But later, Faustus sends devils to harm the Old Man.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

What Makes an Effective Executive

Karrie Sebring BU531 school term 2 Harvard Article Review What Makes an Effective Executive? by Peter F. Drucker What is this article about as a whole? There is no attainment on how to improve efficientness effectiveness is a ally and therefore back end be learned by anyone. Drunker concludes that you dont have to be a leader or possess specific personalities, strengths, set or beliefs to be an effective executive. Utilizing the following eight simple practices allows executives to be effective Asking, What packs to be done? Asking, What is even out for the enterprise? Developing serve send offsTaking responsibility for decisions Taking responsibility for communicating Focusing on opportunities rather than problems ravel productive meetings Speaking as We rather than I The outset two practices give executives the knowledge they need. The next four help them convert this knowledge into effective action. The last two insure that the whole establishment feels responsibl e for(p) and accountable. What are the essential points in this article? Executives need to ask what is right for the enterprise, rather than what is right for the owners, stock price, the employees or the executives.Asking this drumhead does not justify the correct decision will be made however failure to ask this question will nearly guarantee the wrong decision. Knowledge is unuseable until it has been translated into actions but actions need to first be programned to identify possible restraints and implications. The action jut out should be a statement of intention rather than loading and should be revised often because every success and failure creates new opportunities. The action plan necessarily to have a system for checking results against expectations.Lastly, the action plan has to become the basis for the executives time management, which is an executives most odd and valuable resource. Executives need to take responsibility for communicating executives need to s hare their plans, ask for feedback and indicate specifics on what information they need from their subordinates to get the job done. effectual executives focus on opportunities rather than problems they treat change as an opportunity rather than a threat. Effective executives ensure problems do not overwhelm opportunities and mould their best people onopportunity tasks.Executives must make meetings productive and ensure that meetings are work sessions rather than bull sessions. A few key notes are to regulate in advance what kind of meeting to each one session will be, end each session when the purpose has been accomplished and lastly, follow-up on each meeting. Effective executives have authority because they have the trust of the organization and therefore think of the organizations needs and opportunities before their own. Lastly, one rule stands listen before you speak. How can you apply what you learned to business?What Makes an Effective ExecutiveKarrie Sebring BU531 Sess ion 2 Harvard Article Review What Makes an Effective Executive? by Peter F. Drucker What is this article about as a whole? There is no science on how to improve effectiveness effectiveness is a disciple and therefore can be learned by anyone. Drunker concludes that you dont have to be a leader or possess specific personalities, strengths, values or beliefs to be an effective executive. Utilizing the following eight simple practices allows executives to be effective Asking, What needs to be done? Asking, What is right for the enterprise? Developing action plansTaking responsibility for decisions Taking responsibility for communicating Focusing on opportunities rather than problems Running productive meetings Speaking as We rather than I The first two practices give executives the knowledge they need. The next four help them convert this knowledge into effective action. The last two ensure that the whole organization feels responsible and accountable. What are the essential points in this article? Executives need to ask what is right for the enterprise, rather than what is right for the owners, stock price, the employees or the executives.Asking this question does not guarantee the correct decision will be made however failure to ask this question will nearly guarantee the wrong decision. Knowledge is useless until it has been translated into actions but actions need to first be planned to identify possible restraints and implications. The action plan should be a statement of intention rather than commitment and should be revised often because every success and failure creates new opportunities. The action plan needs to have a system for checking results against expectations.Lastly, the action plan has to become the basis for the executives time management, which is an executives most scarce and valuable resource. Executives need to take responsibility for communicating executives need to share their plans, ask for feedback and indicate specifics on what info rmation they need from their subordinates to get the job done. Good executives focus on opportunities rather than problems they treat change as an opportunity rather than a threat. Effective executives ensure problems do not overwhelm opportunities and put their best people onopportunity tasks.Executives must make meetings productive and ensure that meetings are work sessions rather than bull sessions. A few key notes are to decide in advance what kind of meeting each session will be, end each session when the purpose has been accomplished and lastly, follow-up on each meeting. Effective executives have authority because they have the trust of the organization and therefore think of the organizations needs and opportunities before their own. Lastly, one rule stands listen before you speak. How can you apply what you learned to business?

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Hacking and Cybercrime Essay

The Symantec Global Internet Security Threat Report noted a shift in malevolent activity to be emerging. The growing level of malicious encrypt activity has also resulted in the proposal of a new cybercrime bill. Malicious activity tends to cast up in rapid growth in broadband infrastructure and connectivity. In January 2010, reports emerged that dozens of large companies had been compromised by attackers using the Hydra Trojan. Typically, this type of attack begins with around reconnaissance on the part of attackers. Typically, this type of attack begins with some reconnaissance on the part of attackers.This can include publicly available information around the society and its employees, such as from social intercommunicateing sites. This information is then used to create specifically crafted phishing email messages, often referred to as spear phishing, that target the comp all or even specific staff members. These email messages often contain attachments that exploit vulner abilities in client-side application or links to weather vanesites that exploit vulnerabilities in web browsers or browser plug-ins. In 2009, 60 percent of identities exposed were compromised by hacking attacks.Which are another form of targeted attack. The hackers gained access to the company payment processing network using an SQL injection attack. The attackers then installed malicious code design to gather sensitive information from the network, which allowed them to easily access the network at their convenience. The attacks resulted in the theft of approximately 130 million credit card numbers. Web-based attacks rent replaced the mass mailing worm in this position. Attackers may use social engineering, such as in spam messages, to lure a user to a website that exploit browser and plug-in vulnerabilities.These attacks are then used to install malicious code or other applications such as rogue hostage software on the victims computer. Four of the top five being exploited wer e client-side vulnerabilities were oft targeted by web-based attacks. Two of these vulnerabilities were in Adobe Reader, while one was in Microsoft Internet Explorer and the fourth was in an Active X Control. A Crimeware equip is a toolkit that that allows people to customize a piece of malicious code design to steal data and other person personal information.Crimeware Kits like zues trade name it easier for unskilled attackers to compromise computers and steal information. These kit allow anyone who buys them to customize them to their own needs. The SpyEye Kit, is addition to stealing information, also has the ability to detect if a computer already has Zues installed and if so, to intercept its communications. Fragus Exploit Kit contains mechanisms to prevent buyers from reselling their copies of it. A side effect of these kits is the creation of tens of thousands of new malicious code variants that may only be seen by a single user.The volume of financial services spam also r emained relatively unchanged in 2009, while the levels of financially oriented spam and phishing have remained relatively constant despite the recent economic downturn, attackers have made adjustments in their tactics. Symantec observed more messages advertising refinancing of debts and mortgages along with offers of loans or opportunities to earn notes while working from home. This shows that attackers are able to rapidly adapt their social engineering techniques to better take advantage of current events and situations.Symantec expects attacks against web browsers and malicious code variants installed through these attacks to amplify. One of the botnets linked to this ISP was Pandex. This botnet was responsible for as much as 35 percent of spam observed globally before dropping to 8 percent after the ISP was shut down. Spam Zombies that lack a critical command system are unable to send out spam. Additionally, a security researcher allegedly attacked and disabled 250,000 computer s associated with the Ozdok botnet.The volume of spam sent by both botnets recovered several days afterwards because unaffected zombies were instructed to significantly increase their spam output, indicating that these events may have been a large factor in the decrease of spam zombies in the United States. Symantec advises end users to use antivirus software, antispam software, firewalls, tool demote blockers, and other software- detection methods. Symantec also advises end users to never disclose any confidential personal or financial information unless and until they can confirm that any request for such information is legitimate.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Malaysian Airline System

From a small air service that began with a 5-seater twin engined Airspeed Consul in 1947, Malaysia Airlines has grown into an award-winning flight path with a exit of more than 100 aircraft, servicing more than 110 destinations across six continents. Today, Malaysian Airlines System Berhad is a corporation with a vision of planetary expansion. The air passages ne dickensrk ordain grow extensively in response to consumer demand for worldwide coverage. The respiratory tracts enhanced in-flight services, reliable ground support and excellent infrastructure will set sweet world standards.Company History Malaysian Airlines System Berhad is the holding company for Malaysias national airline carrier, one of Asias fastest growing airlines. done several different subsidiaries, the company manufactures aircraft parts, offers trucking and freightage transportation services, caters food, provides laundry and dry-cleaning services for airlines and other industrial institutions, and over sees a travel agency.Company Chairman Tajudin Ramli owns a significant share in Malaysian Airlines System (MAS), and the Malaysian organization retains a strong voice in MAS affairs. 930s Origins The history of Malaysian Airlines dates back to 1937, when the mind Steamship Co. of capital of Singapore joined forces with two British companiesOcean Steamship Co. and Imperial Airwaysand won approval from Singapores government to operate an airline in the region. Malaysian Airways Limited was registered on October 21, 1937. Getting clearance and getting planes in the air, however, proved to be two different things for Malayan Airways Ltd.Operations did not begin until 1947, substantially after the Nipponese occupation had come to an end, when a twin-engined Airspeed Consul lifted off from Subang International Airport in Kuala Lumpur, linking that city with Singapore, Ipoh, and Penang in the north of the country. In 1947 the fledgling(prenominal) airline added a 21-seater DC-3 to its pass along of three Airspeed Consuls. By the end of the year the airline was flying to Jakarta (then called Batavia), Palembang, Bangkok, Medan, and Saigon (later called Ho Chi Minh City).Jointly controlled by the worldwide carriers BOAC and Qantas, Malayan Airways as for a time run by Keith Hamilton, who would later become head of Qantas. 1960s Independence Following Malaysias political establishment in September 1963the refreshing-fashioned country comprised the former states of Malaya and Singapore, and the one-time colonies of North Borneo, Sabah, and SarawakMalayan Airways became Malaysian Airways and was reorganized to focus on connecting the new countrys disparate regions. Expansion brought more aircraft into the fleet after Borneo Airways was purchased and folded into Malaysian Airways in 1965.This brought four Dakota jets and two Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer aircraft to the carriers stable of aircraft. More organizational changes for the airline occurred in 1966, a y ear after Singapore seceded from Malaysia to become a sovereign state on its own. That year, the governments of Singapore and Malaysia jointly bought a controlling stake in the airline and renamed it Malaysia-Singapore Airlines Ltd. (MSA). Powerful Boeing jets then entered the fleet and enabled flights to reach a number of far-flung Asian destinations. However, differences between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore over the future direction of MSA prompted a divide in 1972.Lee Kuan Yew, prime minister of Singapore, desired a truly national carrier for his country, the aim being to fly a small fleet of Boeing 707s displaying the yellow and blue colors of Singapore Airlines. Malaysia likewise chose to go its own way. In October 1972, Malaysian Airline Systems (MAS) was established. (The acronym MAS performer gold in the Malaysian language. ) separately of its aircraft would hence aside sport a winged tiger logo, a stylized form of the traditional Kelantan wau or Malaysian kite. The split w as crucial to the future fortunes of MAS.From 1972, the airline act to see itself as a regional carrier, connecting a myriad of remote destinations in Peninsular Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak. Singapore Airlines, on the other hand, was committed from its line to becoming an international success. By 1975, Singapore Airlines was flying to Seoul, Hong Kong, and Taipei. A year later, that airline was poke outing passengers to Paris, Dubai, and New Zealand. Unlike Singapore, Malaysia looked to focus on exploiting its vast reserves of immanent resourcespetroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, timber products, and rubber.The countrys government would choose much later than Singapore had to attempt competing with Western companies in manufacturing and high-tech markets. Thus, maintaining a successful regional airline carrier was judged the best strategy for Malaysia during the 1970s. The company slowly built up its regional services to Jakarta and Medan in Indonesia. Lat er the destinations of Bangkok, Hong Kong, Manila, and Singapore were added. Malaysia tangle that MAS was not serving the needs of Malaysians, explained Abdullah Mat Zaid, director of corporate planning at MAS.Expanding as a regional airline was not without happening for MAS. In 1978, the companys low-wage policy met with a setback. Kuala Lumpur had set out rules limiting union activity at the national air carrier as a means of keeping wages and costs down, and a bitter and disruptive labor dispute occurred in 1978. Events surrounding a strike at the national airline prompted the government to intervene and cite MAS workers as being engaged in illegal activity. Several union officials were subsequently arrested.Growth in the 1980s90sAn sparing boom in Malaysia during the 1980s helped spur growth at Malaysian Airlines. By the end of the decade, MAS was flying to 47 overseas destinations. These included eight European cities London, Zurich, Paris, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Vienna, Amste rdam, and Brussels. MAS alike flew at this time to six Australian citiesBrisbane, Adelaide, Darwin, Perth, Melbourne, and Sydney&mdash well as to Auckland, New Zealand. Besides flights to such Asian hubs as Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Peking, MAS overly connected with Los Angeles and Honolulu.By 1992, MAS had added scheduled flights to Athens, Madrid, and Rome, and plans were in motion to reach at least one destination in Eastern Europe. Moreover, a new service to South Africa and brazil nut was scheduled for 1993. The airline would also look to reach one city on the eastern seaboard of the United States. MAS also chose during the early 1990s to poke out by teaming up with other airlines to make additional destinations available for its customers. For example, Iran Air connected Kuala Lumpur with Tehran, and Royal Jordanian connected MAS flights with Amman.In addition, joint services to chili pepper and Argentina were discussed in late 1991. The impetus for this expansion came from Mal aysias burgeoning economy. Between 1986 and 1991, the countrys export-oriented economy posted an average real growth of nine part. Changes to Malaysias foreign investment rules during the mid-1980s were intentional to help speed a shift from an economy previously dependent on natural resources to a finely tuned industrialized economy. At the same time, a number of large Asian and Western corporations such as Sanyo, NEC, Toshiba, and Philips established branch plants in Malaysia.The extra avocation of company officials flying back and forth from their headquarters to Malaysia, and the transportation of their high-tech goods, spurred on ticket sales for the airline. The number of business passengers MAS accommodated was underscored by gross foreign investments in Malaysia that rose 30 percent in 1991 to M$10. 7 billion ($5 billion). The 1980s90s Tourist Trade As the countrys export trade thundered ahead in the late 1980s, so did the domestic passenger traffic in and out of Malaysi a, and naturally tourism also provided a springboard to expansion for MAS.By the late 1980s Malaysia began to go after the prized Western tourist, a market already well exploited by neighboring Thailand and the Philippines. Nearly 5. 5 million travelers visited Malaysia in 1991. Although the country, and its airline, were hit by the effects of the Gulf War and global recessionary conditions, tourism contributed M$5 billionor $2. 4 billion&mdasho the countrys trade balance in 1991. The bulk of these tourists came from neighboring Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.Kuala Lumpurs plans to build a number of luxury golf courses in the country were expected to help secure growing numbers of Japanese tourists. Getting into the package tour business also helped MAS encourage increased passenger traffic. Malaysia Airlines Golden Holiday packages and Malaysia Stopover packages were established in 1984. These encouraged European and Australian travelers in transit betw een the two continents to take a rest break in Malaysia before carrying on to their final destination. To further construct tourism, a joint campaign was run by the Malaysian government and MAS to declare 1990 Visit Malaysia Year.During the year, some 7. 4 million tourists flew into and out of the country, as compared with the 4. 8 million tourists who visited Malaysia in the previous year. Another source of new traffic for the airline was the growing number of foreign students attending educational institutions in Malaysia. In September 1989 the International School of Kuala Lumpur registered 700 students a year later, the school had doubled its enrollment. By the same token, young Malaysians were studying in Europe and North America.In Canada, where many Malaysian students attended universities, it was felt in early 1992 that this new traffic source might warrant regular service between the two countries. Canadas own national airline, Air Canada, which was suffering from economic recession and increasing global competition, was slow to grant Malaysian Airlines landing rights. The Canadian government felt that allowing MAS to land in Vancouver would encroach on territory commanded by Canadian Airlines International Ltd. , while Toronto International Airport was considered the preserve of Air Canada.Malaysias case at the time was not helped by Ottawa having a year earlier announced the cancellation of Singapore Airlines landing rights in Toronto. Even so, Kuala Lumpur officials reasoned that Canada was out-of-step in difficult to protect its national airline carriers. The global airline industry as a whole was going the opposite way, towards increased deregulation and competitiveness. Malaysia was prepared to bide for Canada to accept its growing economic might and grant reciprocal landing rights. Intercontinental traffic for the airline was encouraged by the purchase of Boeing 747 wide-body jets.By 1991, the airline had four of them, and three more were ad ded a year later with an average of two more due for delivery each year until 1995. In 1992, a tightening labor supply in Malaysia, in part the result of its increasingly prosperous economy, was cited by international corporations as the prime barricade standing in the way of future expansion plans. Manpower shortages were especially acute at the middle management and technical levels. All of these circumstances would match on MASs passenger and cargo traffic figures as the countrys economy moved from the farm to the factory and beyond.Amid this backdrop, the Malaysian government in 1992 forecast that passenger traffic on the countrys combined airwaysinternational and regionalwould grow by ten percent annually in the five years before 1997. International freightage volume in the same period was expected to rise by 13 percent annually. Officials in Kuala Lumpur announced in 1992 that they had plans to build a new international airport in Sapang, adding that all other airports in t he country were expected to cope with the increased passenger demand of the 1990s without the need for expansion. establishment forecasts in 1992 pointed to 9. 5 million passengers to be carried by MAS that year, a figure expected to jump to approximately 15 million by 1995. Cargo was also identified as an expanding source of revenue for the airline in the 1990s. In recognition of this potential, MAS in 1992 introduced MASkargo in order to begin providing a full cargo service to the United States and Europe. A DC-10-30 jet was fitted to carry up to 60 tons of cargo per flight. Further plans were announced to purchase an additional Boeing 747-400 freighter to carry 45 tons of extra cargo per flight.In 1992 MASkargo also opened a fully automated cargo handling center in Penang. The new facility complemented the expanded MAS Cargo Center at Subang Airport, which provided semi-automated and computerized facilities including elevating transfer vehicles and electronic scissor lifts fitted with computerized scales. Expansion at the cargo center brought MASkargos total warehouse memory space to 150,000 square meters.The ambitious expansion plans taxed the carriers profits, which were nearly halved, from M$206 to M$120, between 1991 and 1992. Turnover increased 23 percent in 1992, however, reaching M$3. billion. Correspondingly, employment at MAS rose from 17,575 workers in 1992 to 20,370 in 1993. Demand for flight crews was so great that the carrier contracted for 35 percent of these positions with overseas personnel, largely Australian. Fifteen hundred of the employees worked in the airlines unique flight kitchen, which served 22 airlines. All 17,000 meals a day were hallal, that is, observing Muslim dietary restrictions that prohibited pork. During this time, MAS hired corpus Wars producer George Lucass special effects unit to create a stunning sci-fi television commercial.The spot, which aired around the world, was commissioned to present MAS as a modern, inaugu ral airline and featured a huge kite-shaped space station. The cost was estimated at between $2 and $4 million dollars. In 1993, MAS bought a 24. 9 percent interest in U. S. charter operator World Airways. The company also leased five of its MD-11 aircraft. Operations personnel, in high demand at MAS, were also made available. 1994 Ramli Buys a Stake in the Airline In 1994 Malaysian entrepreneur Tajudin Ramli bought a 32 percent controlling interest for M$2 billion ($745 million) worth of stock.The government retained an 11 percent interest. Tajudin, who had earlier put together a mini-aviation empire in preparation of competing with MAS, was saddled with an big fleet and diminishing profits. Although sales rose to $M4. 1 billion ($1. 6 billion) in the fiscal year ending March 3, 1994, profits fell from M$145. 4 million ($56. 4 million) to M$7. 7 million ($2. 9 million). The carrier was still receiving large shipments of new aircraft, including Boeing 747s, and sales of its used ai rcraft were slow. Some of MASs new A330 aircraft were delivered late, resulting in penalty payments from Airbus. )Tajudin immediately set out to trim the fat. He introduced a more businesslike attitude and required better reporting from the companys managers. Aircraft economic consumption was increased. The carrier signed code-share agreements on transpacific routes and promoted its Kuala-Lumpur-Los Angeles route to attract more business passengers. Virgin Atlantic Airways teamed with MAS in 1995 to operate joint London-Kuala Lumpur flights. The service proved satisfactory for Virgins Australia-bound passengers.Planes stayed just as full after the number of flights was increased from eight to 14 a week, although the two carriers faced very formidable competition from the British Airways/Qantas alliance, which operated the only single-plane service between London and Australia. MAS recorded its highest ever pretax profit in 199697 of M$349. 4 million ($120 million). The company con tinued to buy new planes and relocated to Kuala Lumpurs new Sepang International Airport, a move expected to further enhance its reputation. However, the new airports opening was plagued with lost baggage, computer malfunctions, and other annoyances.Depreciating Malaysian currency brought MAS debt up to M$12 billion by 1998. Debt servicing helped MAS lose M$260 million ($62 million) in 199798. In response, the carrier deferred new aircraft purchases, sold old planes, and slashed underperforming routes. A new restructuring plan put forth by Tajudin, whose hands were tied by the government when it came to cutting jobs, was rejected on the grounds it would rescue Tajudin at the expense of minority shareholders. Foreign airlines with an eye towards global expansion (such as Thai Airways and British Airways) seemed interested in investing in the troubled carrier, however.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Discuss the role played by Mr. Morrison Essay

Mr. Morrison symbolises the strength of Afro-Americans in the face of adversity. He is a source of courage and apology for the Logan family, acting almost as a guardian angel when papa is not home. There is an air of myth surrounding Mr. Morrison, created by factors such as his stature, his deep voice and scarred features. This makes him an interesting and thus successful character for Mildred Taylor. When the children first meet Mr. Morrison, his description relates directly to Mildred Taylors imagery. The attention that she pays to the significance of trees as an emblem of strength, influences her description of the powerful Mr.Morrison The man was a human tree in height, towering high above papas six feet ii inches. The long trunk of his massive body bulged with muscles The living strength and permanence of trees are a symbol of the strength which the black community draws from its history, tradition and inheritance, and the root which have been put down in their land. Thus, th e description of Mr. Morrison is in keeping with such imagery. The timing of Mr. Morrisons arrival assists Mildred Taylor in developing tension and suspense. He arrives on the scene in the wake of the news of the attack on The Berry Family.Mr. Morrison, we learn, was wrongly accused of starting a fight and then plunder from his job. This gives us an example of institutionalised racism and also hints that there may well be more incidents and fights. The children immediately warm to him and are deeply interest by his giant-like appearance. Mr. Morrisons attributes make him immune to the physical threats by which the local whites terrorise the black community. This gives the children courage and inspiration. As a result he is a figure who earns Staceys respect. Stacey becomes much closer to Mr.Morrison after he makes it plain that he will not be reporting the matter of the fight to with T. J to Staceys mother. Indeed, such is Mr. Morrisons positive influence, that Stacey shows increa sed maturity by telling his mother about the fight himself. On their way back from obtain in Vicksburg, Papa, Stacey and Mr. Morrison are ambushed by the Wallaces. Mr. Morrison shows his tremendous power by taking on three attackers and badly injuring two of them. In the following chapter he once again demonstrates power and shrewd judgement too by lifting Kaleb Wallaces truck.This act is enough for him to avoid being drawn into fighting whilst still standing up for himself. By checking the truck for a gun first, Mr. Morrison shows an admirable measured determination not to be bullied. Furthermore, Mr. Morrison is a vital calming influence upon the headstrong forge when the childrens uncle is seeking to avenge Cassies humiliation in strawberry. The image of Mr. Morrison sat watching on the porch for the nightmen is a very powerful one. To the Logans he is a guardian angel figure, who protects with great strength, yet is otherwise the perfect example of calm.In the stories he tell s to the family we learn of an horrific past in which his family were murdered by racists. His scars symbolise the healing power and capacity to endure that are characterstic of the persecuted black people. His voice like the roll of low thunder raise emphasises Mr. Morrison as a key symbolic figure in the book, as this simile echoes the title. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This school-age child written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Mildred Taylor section.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Jim Porter

Discuss the character of appreciate Porter in envision prat in anger explaining how you feel about him as we move finished the main action of the fun. Have your ideas changed about him by the time we reach the plays final scene? Jimmy Porter is the plays main character. He is the Angry Young Man who expresses his frustration for the lack of feelings in his placid domestic life. Jimmy stand be understood as both a hero for his unfiltered expressions of emotion and frustration in a culture that propagated unemotional resignation.He can alike be considered a villain for the ports in which his anger proves to be destructive to those in his life. All of these characteristics are shown as the play moves on. A play likeLook Back in Angercreates a dry land which, in essence, is familiar to, reality, rather than an imaginativedislocationof reality, and it becomes easier for the mind to sidetrack onto an share which may be more pleasing to it than the main theme of the play.Constant reference is made, as yet by people who liked the play, to Jimmy Porters self-pity, hisneuroticbehaviour, hiscrueltyto his wife. This makes folderol of the play Jimmy Porter is devoid of any neurosis or self-pity, and the play is summed up in his cry against a negative world, Oh heavens, how I large for a little ordinary human enthusiasm. Just enthusiasmthats all. I want to hear a warm, thrilling voice cry out Hallelujah Hallelujah Im alive. WouldLook Back in Angerhave been the success it was if people had been forced to listen to this damning indictment of themselves as dead souls, instead of being allowed to divagate into less dangerous channels. (pp. 45-6)Tom Milne, The Hidden Face of Violence (originally published in Encore,Vol. VII, No. 1, 1960 copyright byEncore),inModern British Dramatists A prayer of Critical Essays,edited by John Russell Brown, Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 38-46. This criticism I find to be true, Jimmy as a character does not d well(p) in self pity or ap athy, but instead sees the world as unjust as a whole.His use of the term enthusiasm is a response to his yearning for positivity, as he simply feels none from Alison. His endless efforts for discussion turn in the end into frustration, which inevitably evolves into confrontation. His endless scan of numerous newspapers is evidence of this, as he tries to get a sense of the unjust world of his eyes, to in all try for develop a series of discussions to exercise his mind, which is normally diverted by Alison and Cliff, which leads to his quest for confrontation.Jimmy as a character appears to be destructive to those in his life, but in contrast, at that place is the argument to be made that his destructiveness has its origins in Alisons and Cliffs inability to level with his Ideas and opinions, which they rather continually ignore or shadow with Cliffs jejune comments, leading to Jimmys frustration through the lack of ability for discussion of the days affairs. An example of this comes in page 3, Jimmy well, she can talk, cant she? You can talk, cant you? You can express an opinion.. This quote from the start of the play indicates Jimmys frustration at the quality of discussion, which evolves in his intimidating questioning of Alisons and Cliffs ignorance towards his attempts to start discussions. Evidence of Alisons torment of jimmy is shown straight away by her reply, Im sorry. I wasnt listening properly. This shows Alisons ability to tease and cause Jimmys destructiveness as she in a phrase pokes the bear, as she is well aware of the odds being favourable for a bitter response from Jimmy, and her reliance upon Cliff to defuse any altercation between her and Jimmy. Look back in anger was also bringing straighten out as an issue before British audiences. Through Jimmy as the voice of the lower-middle class, Osborne is blaming, amongst other things, the swiftness class for the countrys miserable situation. Jimmy uses Alisons brother Nigel as a symbol for the privileged, and therefore despised, upper classs members who fill important positions regardless of whether they are talented or not but merely as a result of their connections. Hell end up in the cabinet one day, make no mistake.But well-nighplace at the back of that mind is the vague knowledge that he and his pals have been plundering and fooling everybody for generations. Jimmys character is built upon his view that the world around him is unjust and his further comments on Nigel reflect this further, the only thing he can do- seek sanctuary in his own stupidity. The only way to keep things as much like they always have been as possible, is to make any alternative too much for your poor, tiny brain to grasp. It takes some doing nowadays. It really does. Jimmy means by this that those who hold high places in society do so not through ability but through ancestral beginnings, which he fairly sees as being inept and obsolete towards forming a society that he believes should exist. When he says it really does, he is saying that the task that Nigel takes is becoming more difficult as more of the population is becoming more and more educated by the year, which he sees as being the form of a future revolution resulting in the expulsion of Nigels class and pals from guarding high positions of government from the lower classs.It is significant that, although Jimmy studied at a university, he runs a sweet stall. This could be considered to be a sign of rebellion. But in uprightness it is a sign of his character that he is idle in his lack of drive to change society through his own effort, instead he prefers to be bitter and awaits others to make the changes he seeks. Jimmys character, changes once Helena arrives, He becomes a show off but the almost important change is when Alison leaves. He appears to feel free.This is because Helena is able to level with him, in conversation and confrontation. Before Alison leaves, we see Jimmy testing Helena, I hope yo u wont make the mistake of thinking for one moment that I am a gentleman. The fact that Helena can fit in discussion with Jimmy delights him as he feels he is performing before an audience. Someone who he feels is listening to his every word with intrigue. He even says, I think you and I understand one another all right. This is the first indication of Jimmys character showing rough-cut respect with another character apart from Hughs mother. Once Alison leaves, and Act 3 begins, it is apparent that Jimmy is in a better place. His questions once deflected by Alison are now responded to by Helena, there are no long rants to restore order and no raised voices enforcing his will to be heard. Helena is frank(a) to activity, unlike Alison. For example on page 83, Jimmy .I was thinking we might work it into the Act, to which Helena replies good idea. The fact that Helena is open to activity shows us a characteristic of Jimmy we did not see early on in the play when living with Alison, he appears to be happy and jubilant on occasion, because of his thoughts and ideas are being responded to positively. In the play we see many sides of Jimmys character at diametric stages of the play, at the beginning he appears as a dreamer, who sees the world as unjust but not full of self-pity.He becomes confrontational when spoil by his wife and friend, who he feels trapped with in a chat dead setting. Were he sees no escape and feels a bony talent. But in truth is not prepared to take action on behalf of himself. His connection with Helena appears first as one based on hatred on the backdrop of difference in class, but he shows characteristics towards her, that of mutual respect, and eventually one of lust. Resulting in him having a sense of freedom and dialogue he has longed for throughout the play.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Marketing and Food Essay

This literature review get out focus on exploring market placeing strategies employed when selling food. I will be looking at what influence these marketing strategies have on consumers decision making process and the deediveness of these strategies. It is clear that consumers dont all vitiate the same things and I am interested to find out what ca economic consumptions this difference in product selection. There be umpteen things that terminate influence these decisions, from the spot of products or the aesthetics of the product. Food companies may also take location or population into account when choosing what product to sell and where to sell it.Demographical marketing strategies use population statistics as a way of finding out what products will sell best. Lars Perner1 uses age demographic as an example. a firm interested in entering the market for sports drinks in a given country, or worldwide, might investigate the number of people between the ages of fifteen and thir ty-five, who would constitute a in particular significant market.In some countries much(prenominal) as Germany, it has been noted that the birth rate is dropping significantly, in this sort of market, a company may soupcon away from creating a baby food product in favour of a product geared towards older people, this is due to the old age market being larger than the young age market. Perner also discusses upward pull marketing. This takes advantage of social class in order to increase ones desire for a product. By Portraying a product as something the upper class society would consume, it can take advantage of the consumers desire to advance their social class. Companies such as Haagen-Daas, who display their product as a luxury ice-cream, and several wine brands make use of this strategy.The layout of a supermarket also has a dramatic effect on food sales. One example is the location of the take in into supermarkets. One study2 suggests that if the entrance to a supermarket i s rigid on the right side, it encourages counter-clockwise movement throughout the supermarket. Whereas if the entrance is on the left, it encourages clockwise movement. The study claims counter-clockwise shoppers sp oddity $2 more per trip, than clockwise shoppers. Products that have a large profit margin are ordinarily located more or less the perimeter of the supermarket, as almost shoppers favour travelling just about the perimeter than traversing up and down the isles.Fresh fruit and vegetable sections are usually located at the start or end of the supermarket, and are presented as a cleaner and more welcoming area to the rest of the supermarket as most shoppers spend the most money in this section. Items placed at the ends of aisles serve as and introduction the items the customer will find in that aisle, the items in the amount of money of the aisle will receive less time with the customer, so items that will make more of a profit will be placed towards the end of aisle s. Commonly purchased items such as milk or bread are generally located at the back of a supermarket, forcing the consumer to travel through many other products in order to get the item they need. It is then that advertising and aesthetic marketing come into play.Different tactics are employed in certain aisles in order to force customers into decisions. One example may be3 the use of music and lights in junk food aisles. By using sleazy music and bright lights, the supermarket may cause the customer to be overwhelmed and make an impulse decision on what to buy, they may reach out for something that would comfort them, such as their favourite junk food. In a different situation, a supermarket may employ the use of dim lights and relaxing music, in order to allure the customer to take their time and spend more time in the supermarket, in turn having them buy more products. Some supermarkets tend to move items around from time to time in order to confuse their customers, having them search through all the aisles in order to find the product, picking up other products along the way. The location of the product is also important, most customers tend to only look at products at are at eye level.The most expensive items will also be found at eye level, with better deals being hidden away above or below. The packaging of a product can also influence the decisions of a consumer. More expensive brands tend to have fancier labelling then generic brands. Therefore we assume the quality is better and are willing to pay higher prices, regardless of whether that is true4 Supermarkets also make use of the senses in order to be sick customers in and attempt to force them into buying something they didnt intend to.They will cater to sight by using colours to evoke certain feelings, light blues and pinks may be used around baby food or sweet sections in order to orison to children. Reds may be used around alcoholic beverages in order to appeal to consumers emotions such as anger or love, both of which have ties with alcohol and the colour red. They may bake fresh cakes and cookies in the bakery section to draw customers into buying the products due to the appealing smell.These findings provide evidence of a definite link between the marketing strategies used by supermarkets and brands, and the effect they have on sales of products. A number of ways in which strategies are employed have been noted, such as demographical marketing, placement of products and product aesthetics.BibliographyPerner, L. (2008). Food Marketing. Food Marketing. ONLINE procurable athttp//www.consumerpsychologist.com/food_marketing.html(2008) The acquisition of supermarket psychology tribalinsight. The science of supermarket psychology tribalinsight. ONLINE Available athttp//tribalinsight.wordpress.com/2008/08/19/supermarket-psychology/(2008) Supermarket tricks. 2008, Supermarket tricks. ONLINE Available at http//today.ninemsn.com.au/moneyandconsumer/598695/supermarket-trick s1Perner, L. (2008). Food Marketing. Food Marketing. ONLINE Available athttp//www.consumerpsychologist.com/food_marketing.html 2(2008) The science of supermarket psychology tribalinsight. The science of supermarket psychology tribalinsight. ONLINE Available athttp//tribalinsight.wordpress.com/2008/08/19/supermarket-psychology/ 3(2008) Supermarket tricks. 2008, Supermarket tricks. ONLINE Available at http//today.ninemsn.com.au/moneyandconsumer/598695/supermarket-tricks 4(2008) Supermarket tricks. 2008, Supermarket tricks. ONLINE Available at http//today.ninemsn.com.au/moneyandconsumer/598695/supermarket-tricks

Monday, May 20, 2019

Plate Tectonics Theory Essay

value how scurf tectonics theory helps our understanding of the distribution of seismic and volcanic events In 1912, Alfred Wegener published his theory that a single super continent named Pangaea once existed about 300 million years ago. He proposed that Pangaea then later split into two continents of Laurasia in the north and Gondwanaland in the south and that todays continents were the result of further splitting of these two land masses. Where the shells split atomic number 18 kn birth as home house boundaries. Wegeners theory of Continental d interruption was support by both geological and biological attest that these areas were once joined. The geological evidence included the stimulate sequences in Northern Scotland closely agreeing with those undercoat in East Canada, indicating that they were laid experience under the identical conditions in one location as wellspring as the obvious jig saw fitting appearance of todays continents, in particular, the take off of south America fitting into the indent below west Africa.The biological evidence comprised of fossil findings linking diametrical continents. Fossil brachiopods found in Indian limestones were comparable with similar fossils in Australia and the fossil remains of Mesosaurus were found in both South America and southern Africa. It is unlikely that the same reptile could have unquestionable in both areas or that it could have migrated across the Atlantic. Despite the evidence, Wegeners theory was unable to rationalize how continental movement had occurred. However from the 1940s additional evidence accumulated after the discovery of the mid-Atlantic ridgeline and huge naval trenches. Examination of the ocean crust either side of the mid-Atlantic ridge suggested that sea-floor spreading was occurring. Magnetic surveys of the ocean floor in the 1950s, showed regular patterns of paleomagnetic striping surrounding the ridges. It was discovered that when lava erupts on the ocean floor, magnetic domains at bottom iron rich minerals in the lava are aligned with the magnetic compass of the earth. This fixes as the lava cools and records the earths polarity at the time of their cooling.As the polarity of the earth reverses every 400,000 years, bands of normal and change by reversal polarity rocks are mirrored on either side of the mid ocean ridges, suggesting that new-sprung(prenominal) rocks are being added equally on either side. Surveys also established the age of the rocks and found young ages for places on or near the ridges and much older ages for rock nearer to the continental masses, demonstrating that older crust is continually being pushed aside bynew crust. The discovery of sea floor spreading led to the premiss that the earth must be getting bigger until now this was non the case and the discovery of pelagic trenches allowed for the conclusion that plates must be being destroyed at contrary boundaries to accommodate the increase in their size at m id-oceanic ridges. Hot spots around the core of the earth generate thermal convection currents within the mantle which cause magma to rise towards the crust and then spread before cooling and sinking.This circulation of magma is the driving ram down of plate movement. This movement has an effect on all the plates determining their type of boundary all(prenominal) with their own accepts and resulting volcanic and seismic events. Divergent boundaries occur along spreading centers where plates are moving apart and new crust is created by magma pushing up from the mantle resulting in oceanic ridges and rift valleys. Where two oceanic plates are moving apart they produce mid oceanic ridges with their corpse influenced by the rate at which the plates separate. Volcanic activity occurs along the ridge forming submarine volcanoes which sometimes rise above sea direct accommodating fairly gentle sides and frequently gentle eruptions. An example of this is located in Surtsey, to the sout h of Iceland, and Iceland itself. As new crust forms and spreads, transform faults occur at right angles to the plate boundary due to dress pressure. The parts of the spreading plates on either side of these fault lines may move at different rates causing shallow focus earthquakes. Where two continental plates are spreading they produce rift valleys.The brittle crust fractures at sections as it moves apart causing a normal fault where intermission wall locomote down relative to the foot wall due to tensional stress. A feature of a rift valley is known as a graben which forms when a block of rock falls between two faults and creates the valley floor and also a horst which is formed when a block of rock is pushed up between two faults. This area is associated with volcanic activity as the crust is much capillary than in neighbouring areas. Convergent plate boundaries occur when two plates are moving towards each other. Where oceanic and continental crusts meet, the denser oceanic crust is forced under the lighter continental plate known as subduction. The down warping of the oceanic plate forms a very deep ocean trench and the continental plate edge is affected by the reverse fault lines that cause folding of the plate to produce uplift rock that forms Fold Mountains. Asthe oceanic crust descends, the increase in pressure can set forth major earthquakes along the line of the sub ducting plate. As it descends further the surroundings become hotter and additional wake from the friction causes the rock to melt in the benioff zone which begins to rise as plutons of magma. When they reach the surface they form composite explosive volcanoes.Eruptions can also occur offshore producing volcanic islands referred to as island arcs. Where two types of the same plate meet they create collision zones by which the compression of the two plates results in the folding of the plate to form Fold Mountains. As there is little subduction, there is no volcanic activity howeve r the movement of plates can trigger shallow-focus earthquakes. Conservative plate boundaries occur when two crustal plates slide medieval each other and the movement of the plates is parallel to the plate boundary. The movement of the plates creates stresses between the plate edges and as they rub past each other the release of friction triggers shallow focus earthquakes. However as there is no subduction, there is no volcanic activity. The best known example of a conservative boundary is the San Andreas cracking in California, where the pacific and North American plates move parallel to each other.Volcanic activity that does not occur along any plate boundary can be the result of many a fault lines and hot spots beneath the crust. Alfred Wegeners theory allowed us to gain insight into the dominance creation of our tectonic plates and their boundaries. The evidence provided by wegeners theory and the record of paleo-magnetism upon the ocean floor supported the idea that the tect onic plates are moving. Supported by the theory of convection currents, the movement of these plates helps our understanding of the distribution of seismic and volcanic events by allowing us to identify varying plate boundaries that create different features and as a result cause these events. This explains their distribution, as events such as these are located in areas above plate boundaries, apart from the odd one which can occur above many a fault lines or hot spots caused by the movement of plates.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Teacher Assistant -Development Of The Child

Summarise the main development of a electric s allowr from come along clutch 0-2 geezerhood, 3-5years and 5-8 years. Physical development of squirtren varies within actually wide limits, depending on the weight and size at the birth, bread and justter and health, but also the genetic herit sequence (p atomic number 18nts or grandp atomic number 18nts size).Physical development0-2 yearsWhen a baby is born, for first common chord months he lie on their back, but is sufficient to make basic distinction in vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching. Many battalion think babies are helpless, but they are born with the ability to do few things they puke have sex their mums voice and smell, they are able to cry and let every unity have sex when they need help. Babies are born with many reflexes which are actions that they perform without thinking. Around three months baby volition start lifting his transmit and provide be able to shiver.As time goes, the baby will be abl e to grasp objects and decide to put that in their mouth. Mobility usually comes at the ages of nine to twelve months. They will be able to cringe and slightly might be able to sit and walk unaided. They can hold and throw toys. At the age of one nigh babies can climb up the stairs (with adult help). Children at deuce years age are very mobile. They will be able to throw and kick a ball but whitethorn not be very assured to catch it.3-5 yearsChildren of three years age will be able to walk, run and jump from low heights. By three a tyke will have shoott most methods of movement, they will be able to walk backwards and sideways, and may even jump from low heights, they should also be able to ride a tricycle. When a pincer is four years old they can catch, throw and kick a ball with full assertion. They are able to walk in a straight line. At four they should be able to catch, throw, kick and bounce balls and should also be positive(p) with balance. By the time a child reac hes their fifth birthday, changes in bodily development are much rapid .Usually by five they moves freely and with pleasure and confidence in a range of ways, such as rolling, crawling,walking, running, skipping, sliding and hopping.5-8yearsAt age of 5-8 the child has lots of energy, impr everywhere the balance and coordination for lots of activities, including swimming, riding a bike, skipping and playing with a ball. Their balance and agility will have increased enormously by this age.Intellectual Development0-2 yearsFrom birth children begin to learn how to use their senses to explore the world nigh them. Within the early months a child will make eye contact and be able to modus operandi their head to the smell of their m separate breasts. At age of three months babies smile back when they insure a smiling face. By six months babies have learnt many skills, they are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing, they can now reach out and grab a toy and over it from one hand to another. By 2 years old, children are very much showing their individuality. They know what they want to do, touch and hold. They enjoy singing and dancing to music, pointing to picture of familiar objects and naming them.3-5 yearsAt age three their concentration grows and they are able to control pencils and paintbrushes, at four years old their memory will develop quickly, and should be able to build things with small blocks. They respond well to adult praise and recognition. Children look at questions and enjoy talking. Around the age of five a child should be able to count confidently and recognize letters and most children have begun in formal educational activity.5-8 yearsBetween the age six and eight years the childs reading and mathematics skills will have develop a lot and they will be able to read and write independently.Language Development 0-2 yearsFrom birth to three months they are crying and cooing and they can recognise and respo nd to sounds. At three six months they star imitate the sounds that they recognize. At age one children can are beginning to talk and can say mama and dada. At age of two children start to talk and enjoy talking.3-5 yearsBetween the age of three and five they would be able to learn songs and rhymes .They will enjoy listening to stories. At age of five they will become very confident speaker.5-8 yearsAt this age children are able to describe things accurately and they will use a much wider expression and of words.Emotional Developent0-2 yearsBabies start to smile and to recognize the face and voice of their mother or carer. They start being certain about the people that they dont know and they enjoy being secure . from one to two they will become aware of the ways of those around them.3-5 yearsAt this stage the children can communicate what they are feeling. At the age of five they can control their own emotions.5-8 yearsAt this stage the child starts to feel sensitive about who o ther children feel about him. They may compare themselves to their friends and peers (He is better at drawing than I am or She is a better soccer player). They will experience a variety of mood changes as they grow in years and develop.Social Development0-2 yearsFrom birth till age of nine months the babies are very sociable, from nine to twelve months they will discover who to play alone and they will not be as dependent on others for their entertainment. Between one and two years old they become more confident and independent3-5 yearsChildren enjoy making friends and sociailsing. They enjoy being with others and they can choose what is good and wrong and understand the vastness of sharing and tacking turns.5-8 yearsAt the age of six some children become less sociable and some take to have one special friend. They start having their social circle where they find themselves comfortable. Analyse key social, frugal and environmental factors, which may influence development There ar e many factors that influence child development, and for most of them, we do have some control.Every child deserves the opportunity to blossom. Love is very important when we speak about the social development. When the child feels the love and affection from his carer or farm he can make friends and increase well in development and he is happy emotionally. When the love is missing you can observe distressing children, neglected, isolated, unfriendly, upset There are socio-economic trends that can influence child development. It is true that poorer families are at a disadvantage when it comes to providing the livelyest environment for a child to grow. Many families must rely on public education that may not be the best in their area. It is very difficult for poor families when a child needs special services to aid development.A child will hit more when a parent work part time and spend more quality time with the child, but in some situation this is not possible. A loving caring environment can benefit more than having a lots of money, although the child may not have expensive items, but he will benefit by been happy and loved. Children living in poverty may also have poor provisions, passing their ability to reach their potential. Environmental influences on child development, as opposed to genetic influences which are not in our power. The world around us has a major part in shaping the child. A childs environment for example, his family or school plays a huge part in his development. Simply stated, a nurtured child will do better than a deprived child.That may seem like common sense, but you may not realize the little things that make a difference. Some assume that a rich privileged child will automatically thrive more than a child living in poverty. That is not always the case. An environmental factor which can also affect the children be when the family is moving house. This conniption affect the child who is losing the current friends and school and the child can be anxious and withdrawn. Losing their friends can be as traumatic as losing a favorite toy. Describe childrens overall development needsA child development is split into main parts physical, intellectual, social/emotional, language. All children need stability, good home, encouragement from parents, the congeal nutrition in order for them to grow and develop well. Love is very important for their emotional and physical development. Children also need stability with their homes, parents, friends.They can be seriously affected if a divorce occurs in the midst of theirparents. In order to grow they need to benefit by a good dietary and nutrition habits. Lots of vegetables and fruits are recommended. Exercises, sports are also good for their physical development. The fresh air, a walk in the park or somewhere to explore and learn more about the environment.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Uefa & Football Governance

Jaime Andreu-Romeo calculate of atomic snatch 63an period of play Unit, atomic number 63an Commission Leonardo Nasci workforceto de Araujo AC Milan and FIFA World instill Champion 94 John Barton T. E. A. M. Marketing Genevieve Berti Communications Manager of G-14 Marco Brunelli Lega Calcio and our tutor Richard Bunn TV and Media consultant Michele Centenaro Senior Product Manager, nine emulations, UEFA Jerome Champagne Deputy Secretary ordinary, FIFA Jean-Paul de la Fuente Founding Director, Deureka Peter Gillieron General Secretary, Association Suisse de footb every last(predicate) bouncy Michel Guenaire pull down in epoch of gambol-Law Division, Gide, Loyrette et Nouel, Paris Rodolfo Hecht President, Media Partners Group Jonathan Hill Communications and Public Affairs Liaison to the European colligation, UEFA GianniIn cull outtino General apprize Commercial Legal Services, UEFA Thomas Kurth General Manager of G-14 Antonio Marchesi Senior Partner, Delo itte and Touche Sports, Italy Lars-Christer Olsson Director of Professional footb tout ensemble back up and Marketing, UEFA Denis Oswald IOC division and President of FISA (Inter guinea pig Rowing Federation) Alex Phillips- Senior Product Manager, Professional football pole game game, UEFA Arnaud Rouger-Conseil Juridique, LFP (Professional football game alliance France) Freddy Rumo- President of Executive witness board of Neuchatel Xamax FC and source UEFA Vice President Jefferson Slack- Director, Inter Active, FC Internazionale Milano Ste winnow Szymanski Professor of Economics, The Business School, over-embellished College London Alain Rumpf Coordinator of the Professional cycle Council, Inter field of study Cycling Union (UCI) Additionally we would like to thank UEFA -Division of Services, curiously Barbara Rodel, Division of Professional football game and Marketing, especially Marion Haap, Lucia Castelli at Atalanta Bergamasca Calcio, Ruth Beck-Perrenoud fro m the Olympic Museum for her help in search, our professors at DeMontfort University (Leicester, UK), SDA Bocconi (Milan, IT) Universite de Neuchatel, (Neuchatel, CH), the CIES and FIFA, sponsor of the International Master, especially Vincent Monnier. Finally we thank our families and friends for their patience, support and inspiration, especially during the last phase of this project. 5 PROLOGUEThe headlines of sport juveniles sections suffer been filled with tension-riddled declarations from football wager night order of magnitude managers toward footballs organisers about likewise m some(prenominal) matches, national police squad up call-ups at key points in the while and byplay oer players victim of injuries during useless worldwide friendlies. The receipt is several(prenominal)times swift, sometimes harsh, besides always illustrative of the conflicts mingled with the members of the so-called football family. We recognise that all families perplex conflicts, s ome tragic, others trivial, but we were struck by the intensity of this banter internally sewing a frown to footballs countenance speckle still outwardly largessing a naive smile. We began to snap the relationships and gradually realised that there were some family members with serious concerns who were non addressing each other.We heard the uproar from study nine figureheads when UEFA took the nth decision to change its prize event, the Champions fusion. We overly felt the inescapable force of commercialised- world(prenominal)isation when Brazilian worldwide players flew half-way across the world to China for 90 minutes of football worth US$ 1 million. We shed a tear when Italian legend AC Fiorentina were dissolved and Angelo DiLivio, a FIFA World instillful nettist, voluntarily descended to the fourth and lowest sea captain division and found out to paint the arcsecond Florentine renaissance, this time named Florentia Viola. We love football and we have a great pu rsuit to see the beautiful game continue to flourish to the ends of the Earth.Thus when we saw these unresolved dissonances spreading through the game, we make the decision to throw ourselves into the battle royal and clarify who the actors were, what their interests were and how they were relating to each other. later surveying the sports stadium we chose to focus on the indian lodges and UEFA, and then more specifically on the multitude of clubs creating the approximately commotion, the G-14. Their name seemed to pop up everywhere from the headlines, to the European Commission but never from UEFA. We found the door, brushed aside the coats and stepped into the magic wardrobe of UEFA, G-14 and European Football. . . 6 INTRODUCTION I. incur The final aim of this project is to propose some adjustments to the watercourse governance model of European football in order to address the conflicts arising from the vexures of the modern sport.In order to do that we organized our e xplore to coldgon the overriding question of How do transnational sport political science bodies adapt and respond to the tweets of mansion house assorts? , looking specifically to the oddball of UEFA and G-14. With the overriding question in mind, we structured our project to answer the following questions 1. What atomic number 18 the foreign circumstances deep down the governance of European football that ar jump outing the rise of a good deal(prenominal) lobby groups? 2. How efficiently ar those conflicting circumstances organism addressed by the pertinent actors? 3. What ar the of import risks to the sport that discount arise from the change in which the conflicts be being managed, and how can those risks be rationalise? II. Paper Structure and Scope The tructure of this paper is sub-divided in five chapters In the first chapter we present the report of play and provide some background selective in make-up on the format and scenario in which the imp ortant actions comprise place. We entrust demonst ordain the current governance structure of European football, briefly touch on the droll dynamics of the football intentness, present the major(ip) relevant stakeholders, their interests and inter-relationships and illustrate the complexity of the contestation schedule of skipper football in Europe. This information result be relevant for the complete understanding of the issues treated in the paper. The second chapter presents the major actors bear on in the production of the spectacle of European football.Although we recognize that the media and the major sponsors ar burning(prenominal) enablers in the distribution and popularisation of European football and its influence over the shaping of the game has been ripening on the years, we have chosen to focus the scope of our analysis on the clubs (and with them, the G-14), the national crossties, the unites and UEFA, as we swear those are still the just about influent ial actors in the design of football as a product. After presenting the major actors, in the troika chapter we analyse the convergences and divergences of interests among them, the main areas of conflict and the potential risks that such conflicts can inspect to the forthcoming of European football. We then take a break at chapter four and look distant European football in the search for examples of conflict management at similar clear contexts. Our impersonal with chapter four is to learn some lessons that could be applied in the change of defining our final recommendations for the present case.Finally, in chapter five we present a model with recommendations for adjustments to the current governance of European football, with the aim of minimizing the conflicts and tensions among the members of the Football Family. 7 Although UEFA has a broad range of activities touching on every discipline of association football in Europe, the scope of this paper is restrict to elite lo rd mens football, as this is presently the only form of the game that has achieved significant commercial potential. And it is non until significant flows of specie begin to bourgeon over a sport that the major conflicts among different stakeholders start to surface. III. Research Methods and constraints Our research was carried out during whitethorn and June 2003. It has been structured around a hypothesisdriven admittance, a methodology commonly used by management consulting firms.The approach consists in five major steps as shown in pick up I purpose I The hypothesis-driven approach 1 2 3 4 5 Overriding question Issue direct Hypotheses Research Analyses & Conclusions 1. Overriding question The Overriding question is the eventual(prenominal) question the project aims to answer. As menti nonpareild before, we have peg downd it as How do international sports governing bodies adapt and respond to the pressures of lobby groups? 2. Issue channelise The second step consists in identifying the relevant issues that accept to be addressed in order to answer the overriding question. The issue head is a hierarchical structure of questions that volition be answered during the project jumper lead to the final answer to the overriding question.For this paper we have fixated three main issues and a set of 24 sub-issues in two different take aims as shown in Figure II. 3. Hypotheses Once the issue tree has been defined we have generated the hypotheses for the project. The hypotheses are tentative answers to the issues ground on the authors intuition and background knowledge on the subject. They may be proved mature or they may be discharged after the research and the analyses are conducted. The importance of generating a unsounded set of hypotheses is that it provides the group with a comprehensive overview of the projects main messages at its very beginning. 4. Research In this step we have designed the analyses that needed to be conducted to prove o r discharge our hypotheses. base on that set of analyses, we defined the input info to be pull together and de depotined their potential sources. 8 Input data was collected through the following methods Preliminary interviews with representatives of UEFA and G-14 to substantiate the soundness of the initial list of hypotheses. Interviews with representatives of sport governing bodies, football clubs, national associations, national unifys, governmental bodies, sports selling companies, media companies, lawyers, economists, players and pains analysts to capture the different views on the subject and its potential issues. Review of official documents provided by G-14 and UEFA, in like manner books and papers from academics on matters concerning the scope of our project. Search and review of websites of official governing bodies, clubs, and specialized sport press for relevant news and archive materials. Final interviews with UEFA and G-14 to discuss and validatedate our preliminary findings. 5. Analyses and conclusions After cultivation the process of data gathering we have conducted the analyses necessary to prove or discharge the hypotheses and have drawn our final conclusions. Research Constraints Although the hypothesis-driven approach adds focus and drive to the project, speeding up the problem solving process, this project was conducted along six weeks of fully-time work and there is some limitation to what can be achieved in such a reduced time frame.Notwithstanding, we have been fortunate by the event that some of the major exp matchlessnts in the European football perseverance were extremely collaborative and candid about the subject, allowing us to conduct xx three high-level interviews across four different countries covering representatives of and experts on all main stakeholders involved in the subject. Precisely because of time constraints, we have not been able to at present interview executives from TV companies or sponsors, n or have we been able to conduct quantitative analyses on the opinion of raw siennas as far as the issues stirred by this paper are concerned. Our conclusions with regards to those groups of stakeholders are ground on interviews with industry analysts and any available research material published on the subject.With respect to research materials we have been able to obtain the majority of information needed to prove or discharge our set of hypotheses, perhaps with the exception of conclusive empirical data about the determinants of demand for sport. This would be particularly useful in allowing the design of more precise scenarios for the future of the game, and further research in this area might prove valuable. 9 Figure II The overlord project issue tree (as designed in the first group meeting) Overriding question How do international sport governing bodies adapt and respond to the pressures of lobby groups? The case of UEFA and G14 Issue A What are the conflicts within the in ternal structure of European Football and why are they arising? A1 What are the interests of UEFA? A2 What are the normal interests of the clubs? A3How do those interests interplay? A4 What additional occurrenceors could be creating / amplifying conflicts? A1. 1 How does UEFA pursue those interests? A2. 1 How do top clubs pursue those interests? A3. 1 What are the areas of convergence? A1. 2 How do those interests represent the views of the member associations? A2. 2 How do other sea captain clubs pursue those interests? How do dilettante clubs pursue those interests? A3. 2 What are the areas of divergence? A2. 3 Issue B How efficiently are those conflicts being managed? B1 How have past conflicts been managed? B2 What are other examples of conflict management in sports? B3 What lessons can we learn from those examples? Issue CWhat risks can arise for the sport from the management of such conflicts and how can those risks be mitigated? C1 What if UEFA rigidly fixes its position against the Lobbying group? C2 What if UEFA gains a reactive role towards the conflict? C3 How can UEFA adopt a proactive model to solve conflicts? C1. 1 What are the threats for UEFA coming from G-14? C3. 1 What are the intimately sensitive areas to be considered by this model? What are the key success factors for the model? C1. 2 What are the threats for G-14? C3. 2 C1. 3 What would be the consequences of those threats if carried out? C3. 3 How should the model be designed? 10 CHAPTER unmatched BACKGROUND 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. STRUCTURE OF EUROPEAN FOOTBALL GOVERNANCE AND FOOTBALL THE PYRAMID STRUCTUREThe governance of association football resembles a improvement where each layer takes on different responsibilities in different geographical scope. The formation of this pyramid has historical roots in the early stages of organized football in Britain and it has not been a uniform process. As Britain changed from an agrarian to an industrial society in the late 18 century, the games played in the open fields of the body politicside were adapted to suit the narrow streets and hard surfaces of the new urban communities. The leisure time determined by sun, seasons, and feudal obligation was replaced by the much more restricted leisure hours appointive by the artificial light of the factories and the needs of the owners.Improvements in roads and transportation allowed games to be played right(prenominal) the local village, and as steam trains started to link the ever growing towns of Britain, it became possible to play on a national tush the games that the middle class favoured and promoted. This expanding scope involved understanding on rules and the formation of a national governing body. 1 th And that is where the pyramid begins to be formed. With the spread of the sport around the world, the pyramid started evolving from a local and national to an international scope and finally reached its current form as shown in Figure 1. 1 Figure 1. 1 The pyramidal str ucture of European football FIFA UEFA case Leagues matter Associations REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS CLUBSThe clubs The clubs are the basic carrell and the foundation of the pyramid. Originally founded as local associations their initial intent was to offer the local community the possibility of engaging in the sport, thereby promoting the idea of sport for all. With the introduction of a regular controversy, The FA Challenge 1 MURRAY Bill, The worlds game a floor of soccer, University of Illinois get, 1998, p. 2 11 Cup in 1871, spectator work partys in England began to amplify dramatically and in 1901 a crowd of 110,820 turned up to see Tottenham Hotspur and Sheffield United contest the final of the trophy . These crowds were increasingly bountiful birth to the popularisation of football as a spectator sport.To solar daylight, the main objective of top professional football clubs has shifted from the offer of opportunities to engage in the practice of the sport, to the offer o f the spectacle of the game and all the attached psychological, aroused and kindly benefits for the fan. But the clubs still remain the basis and the primary link of contact with the communities. regional associations Regional associations form the following(a) level although this form of association is not present in all countries. high societys are usually affiliated to these organisations. Their scope of action is limited to a region within a republic in which they are responsible for organising regional aceships or coordinating the sport.National associations The first national association to tell apart into scene was the face Football Association, or simply the FA as it is know today. It emerged from the London FA that became virtually the fix authority for the game in England after different regional associations in England came to a compromise agreement in 1877. By 1905 it had achieved the mark of 10. 000 local clubs affiliated to it. The success of the London FA in establishing its control over other regional associations came with the popularity of the Challenge Cup, instituted in 1871, a competition that is still played today. Also assist to secure the success of the dribbling game was the regular match with Scotland which began officially in 1872. 4 3 2Today, national associations besides organizing club competitions and being responsible for the coordination of a national team to represent the country in international competitions are similarly the supreme regulatory and disciplinary body of the sport within the national boundaries, although, as we willing see later, they have limited autonomy and have to abide by the rules of UEFA and FIFA. By doing this they are given a monopolistic position in the national organization of the game, as FIFA as the ultimate body in the pyramid will only recognize genius association per country. National Leagues Some countries such as France, Italy or England know another form of organisation with th e introduction in the structure of national fusions. The origin of partnerships dates back to the England of the end of the 19 century.In 1885, after a serial of complaints about athletes accepting money and the creation of committees to deal with them, followed by threats of serious punishments, the FA legalized professionalism. This meant that players had to be given a regular income. The Challenge Cup was still the main competition. Being a knock-out competition, even the best teams could be eliminated in an early round being left with nothing to do. The answer was the Football League. The league was 2 3 4 5 5 th Ibid, p. 9 Ibid, p. 6 Ibid, p. 7 The elite club competitions are respectively coordinate in these countries by the Ligue Nationale, Lega Calcio and the Premier League. 12 ade up of selected teams that agreed to play one another on set dates, on a home and off basis, and promised to field their strongest teams and to give league matches preference over all others. T he psyches engaged in the discussions about the new league were demandly self-made men, small rail line owners and industrialists who came from a social folk different from that of the men of the FA. With the FA watching anxiously, discussions were held by those in favour of the league. On 8 September 1888 the new football league kicked off competition with twelve teams. A constitution would be drawn up determining issues such as points scoring system, how to plow the gate money, and later, a system of promotion from and relegation to a second division.According to its founder and guiding spirit, the Scotch-born Birmingham businessman William McGregor, the aim of the league was to protect the interests of the clubs taking part in its competition. He openly declared that the league should never aspire to be a legislating body by the very character of things the League must be a selfish body. The English Football League conceded the right of the FA to control football in all ar eas but the organisation of league competition. This meant that the FA was left to control the Challenge Cup, internationals, amateur football and certain matters concerning the rewards and disciplining of the professionals. 6Today, the relationship between national leagues and national associations throughout Europe is very similar to the one verified in England in the late 19 th century. patch the national association is responsible for the control and development of all aspects and disciplines of football within the national boundaries, the leagues main interest is the commercial development of its major product, a league competition. Although there are tensions from time to time, the two bodies co-habit in relative peace given their share of common interests on the game. UEFA The next level of the pyramid is formed by the continental confederations, or more specifically in the case of Europe, UEFA The Union of European Football Associations. As the name suggests, UEFA is forme d by 52 national associations .It is the governing body of football on the continent of Europe and has as its core mission to safeguard the development of European football at every level of the game and to promote the principles of unity and solidarity, as we will detail later. Along the homogeneous lines of the national associations UEFA enjoys a monopolistic position on the organisation of the game in Europe, guaranteed by the pyramid structure. It is relevant to notice that unlike the reality at the national level, where a league takes from the national association the responsibility of organizing and commercially developing an elite competition among clubs, the figure of the league does not exist at the continental level. The task of organizing and commercialising European club competition falls into UEFAs direct jurisdiction.FIFA FIFA, is the supreme authority of football in the world. Its creation, in 1904, precedes that of the continental confederations, and thus, its membe rship structure is also formed by national associations. 7 6 7 MURRAY Bill, The worlds game a history of soccer, University of Illinois narrow, 1998, p. 11 See a complete list of UEFAs member associations at accessory a. 13 Technically, the continental confederations, like UEFA, are not members of FIFA, but are recognized bodies and have the right to elect the vice presidents and members of FIFAs Executive Committee. FIFAs stinting consumption is to promote and develop the game of football throughout the world, and to be the uardian of the regulations of the game. Unlike national associations, national leagues and continental confederations, FIFA currently does not organise club football competitions, although it regulates over matters that impact club football reality, such as transfer systems, and the coordinated international calendar. FIFAs activities as far as competition organisation is concerned are currently limited to international competitions among national teams. FIF A is responsible for holding the whole pyramid together. The ownership of the FIFA World Cup, the most classical single sporting event in the world, and a large and universal membership base are its main sources of index number.By making use of regulations such as the need for a national association to be a member of a continental federation for two years before being granted membership to FIFA , and by obliging continental confederations to comply with and enforce compliance with the FIFA statutes, regulations and decisions, and to ensure that international leagues or any other such combination of clubs or leagues shall not be formed without its consent and panegyric of FIFA , or by prohibiting affiliated national associations and their clubs to play matches or entertain other sports contacts with associations which are not affiliated to FIFA or with clubs belonging to them without FIFAs consent , it guarantees that the layers and the monopoly of the pyramid in the organisation of football are respected. 1. 1. 2. THE EUROPEAN FOOTBALL INDUSTRY 11 10 9 8Definition of the Football Industry Many race resent the use of the term business to describe the activities performed by the main actors in the European football scenario. However, it is undeniable that European football has undergone an accentuated process of commercialisation, especially in the last fifteen years, which has brought significant amounts of money into the game. Instead of engaging in an emotional and semantic discussion to determine if football is a game, if it is a business or if it is as much a business as it is a game, we will define as football business the group of commercial activities performed by the actors in the football industry, and we will define as football industry the group of legal entities whose commercial activities are rooted in the game of football.However, such a definition of the football industry is a very broad one and for the purpose of this paper it needs to be na rrowed down as proposed in Figure 1. 2. 8 9 10 11 FIFA has currently 204 member associations (one per country), which represents a big membership base than the UN. FIFA Statutes, art 4, par. 1 FIFA Statutes, art. 9, par. 3 FIFA Statutes, art. 57, par. 1 14 Figure 1. 2 The structure of the football industry12 Sports Industry Football opposite Sports Sporting goods quick-wittedness mutualist sports services Sport consultation services Spectacle sport Hybrid Sport Participant Sport Club Football National team Football Participant services smasher services Sponsorship services Media servicesLicence services Scope of this paper Outside the scope of this paper The product-based typology proposed in Figure 1. 2 divides the sport industry into three main segments Sporting goods, Facility dependent sports services and Sport consultation services. Sporting goods companies producing apparel, shoes, equipment, team and/or league merchandise, sport licensed products. Examples of companies in this segment include Nike, Adidas and Reebok. Sport consultation services companies supplying advice in areas such as management, medical, design, building and maintenance, programming, among others. Examples include IMG, Octagon, and InFront. Facility dependent sports services organisations offering sport as their end product be it as spectacle (matches, competitions) or as access to intimacy. This segment, like the others, can be further subdivided in three categories spectacle, participant and intercrossed sport. Spectacle sport the most prominent feature of organisations in this category is the ability to generate substantial revenues directly or indirectly from spectators. Here, athletes are usually professionals. Examples of organisations in this category are Manchester United, Juventus and the English Premier League. 12 Adapted from WESTERBEEK & SMITH, Sport Business in the Global Marketplace, Palgrave, 2003, p. 87 15 Participant sport this is the category of entitie s providing opportunities for people to engage in sporting activities, usually on a non-professional basis, like gyms, community sports centres and amateur sport clubs. Hybrid sport in this category, sports organisations offer a mix of spectacle and participant sport. As Westerbeek and smith 13 point out, governing bodies are likely to be hybrid sport organisations as they are charged with developing a mass participation base for the sport with the ambition of securing its longevity, while encourage and promoting the few outstanding athletes that can perform in elite spectacle sport, providing the sport with the exposure so essential to its popularity, while developing the basis for spectacle sports revenue streams.Once the segmentation is understood, we can then define the European Football Industry in this paper as the group of legal entities acting in the facility dependent sports services, specifically within the boundaries of the spectacle and hybrid sport category in the te rritory covered by the liter two member associations of UEFA. It is important to remark that this industry is built on two main pillars, club football and national team football, that ultimately have to share part of the same resources top-level players, spectatorship, calendar time, among others. balance and Growth of the European Football Industry in that location is no reliable data about the sizing of the European Football Industry as defined above.Deloitte & Touche estimates that, in the season 2000/2001, it should be close to national team football in Europe is in the range of 90-10% respectively. 15 10 billion. 14 A possible breakdown of this number is shown in Figure 1. 3. We reckon that the split between club football and Another important consideration is the fact that domestic football (in top and lower divisions) is by far the most important segment of the industry. As we can see from Figure 1. 3, the lions share of the industry is equal by top-division club football in the domestic leagues, amounting to 6. 6bn, thereof the so-called big-five leagues (England, Italy, Spain, Germany and France) omit 78%.Put in perspective, those numbers are not very impressive, as the entire European Football Industry would not even feature in the ranking Fortune Global 500 16 in 2002. What is impressive though, is the consistent fast pace with which this industry has been growing over the past 10 years. The top-division clubs at the big-five leagues all grew at similar rates from the mid-1990s to 2001 between 18% to 24% per annum, 17 while UEFAs consolidated revenues grew at an impressive rate of 29% per annum 18 during the nine-year period comprised between the seasons 1992/1993 and 2001/2002 primarily 13 14 15 WESTERBEEK & SMITH, Sport Business in the Global Marketplace, Palgrave, 2003 Deloitte & Touche Annual Review of Football Finance June 2002 p. 16 A priori, by looking at Figure 1. , this proportion might sound counter-intuitive but we must not forget that a share of UEFAs and the European federations revenues is based on club football. The Fortune Global 500 ranks the 500 largest companies in the world based on their global revenues. In the 2002 ranking, Wal Mart appears as number 1 with global revenues around US$220 billion, while Takenaka, a Japanese company in the construction business ranks 500 with global revenues slightly above US$10bn. DELOITTE & TOUCHE Annual Review of Football Finance 2001/2000 p. 4 UEFAs consolidated revenues including amounts paid beforehand UEFA chief executive officer Annual Report 2002 p. 33 16 17 18 16 riven by the growth of the UEFA Champions League as we will show later. And although these growth rates are recently giving sign of slow down the pace, we believe it is more a matter of an internal adjustment of the industry than the apocalyptical actualisation of the discover of a bubble as many analysts like to put it. Most of the economic fundaments supporting the growth of the European Foo tball Industry are solid, as notwithstanding the latest downsizing in the evaluate of broadcast rights paid for some properties and the breakdown of companies like ISL and KirchMedia, we do not see signs of an actual go down in the demand for European Football.Much on the contrary, as we have seen that the TV audience for the 2002/03 UEFA Champions League grew by 9% in relation to the previous year, meaning that the competition produced an average live audience of 46 million viewers per match-week in the larger markets. 19 Figure 1. 3 Estimated market size of the European Football Industry 2000/2001 billion 1. 3 1. 2 6. 6 Big-5 Leagues 10. 0 0. 7 0. 2 10 year average 24% 17% 14% 13% 10% 78% England Italy Spain Germany France growth > 20% p. a. Top division domestic club football1 Lower division domestic club football3 UEFA Club Competitions2 Annualized EURO Cup2 Sources 1) Deloitte & Touche, 2) UEFA , 3) Authors estimatesRevenues of National Associations, Leagues, UEFA, others 3 marry1 It is important to notice though, that if the industry has experienced significant growth in revenues in the last decade, positiveness has not kept pace. This is generally because of the rise in the spending on players in a phenomenon known as the prune juice effect, which refers to the tendency for revenues generated by football clubs to simply pass through the clubs accounts on the way to players pockets. Just to illustrate that point, as already mentioned, the consolidated revenues of the top-division clubs in the big-five leagues grew at an annual rate between 18% and 24% between the seasons 1995/96 and 2000/01.In the same period the ratio wages/revenues went from 47% to 60% in England, and from 57% to 75% in Italy, just to mention two of the major markets. profitableness 21 20 The result is a plunge in the 23 of the industry in the major markets 22 with the most accentuated cases being Italy going from 1% to 19% in six seasons and Spain going from 7% to 28% in fou r seasons. 19 20 21 22 23 UEFAs champion audience, Sportbusiness. com, June 3 2003 Analysis of the authors based on the Deloitte and Touche Review of Football Finances 2002 Measured as in operation(p) Profits / Revenues The exception is Germany that managed to keep its profitability between 8% and 10% during the period There are no available date for Spanish top-division clubs in the seasons 1999/00 and 2000/01 17Business Model of the Football Industry The current business model of the European Football Industry relies on four main revenue streams 1. Match day revenues Expenditure of fans on-site, mainly derived from gate receipts (including season tickets). 2. Media rights Value paid by media companies to acquire the rights of transmit a specific sport property. 3. Sponsorship principal(prenominal)ly derived from brand/name placing on team shirts and around stadia. 4. otherwise commercial revenues Mainly revenues from licensed merchandise, but also includes conference and catering services. Figure 1. 4 gives an overview on the proportions of these revenue streams for a sample of domestic leagues. Figure 1. Breakdown of top-division clubs revenue streams 2000/01 16% 31% 18% 16% 42% 34% 40% 25% 54% 39% 51% 45% 51% 20% 18% 20% 12% 4% 41% 43% 13% 30% 17% 9% 15% 22% 14% 18% 15% 12% 13% England Italy Spain (97/98) Key Germany France Portugal Netherlands Norway Matchday mobilize Sponsorship (includes all commercial revenues for England) another(prenominal) commercial Source Deloitte & Touche As we can see from the graph above, TV is in general the single largest contributor to clubs revenues in the big-five leagues. According to Deloitte & Touche in the season 2000/01, TV responded for 2. 4 billion, or 46% of the 5. 2 billion total revenues of the top-division clubs in the big-five leagues.However, this proportion will vary importantly according to the size of the TV market in which the club is located. There is a clear distinction between the relevanc e of TV monies for the top-division clubs in the big-five leagues and the top-division clubs in other mid-size or small leagues like Portugal, Netherlands and Norway, as shown in the graph. The Fan The Heart of the Football Industry Although the importance of television and sponsors is clear in the current business model of the European Football Industry, which might lead us to conclude that those are the most important actors in this industry, the dynamics of the industry rely ultimately on the interest of spectators. Figure 1. shows a simplified map of survey relationships between actors in this industry. 18 Figure 1. 5 Summarized Value orbit of the Football Industry Simplified Simplified 2 Leagues Sponsors ? Clubs B C 1 3 ? television system A Football Fans Population Note For the sake of simplification this map does not consider some important stakeholders in the Football Industry such as governing bodies and federations, players, clubs shareholders, national teams, among o thers The cornerstone of measure out for the Football Industry is relationship between fans and the clubs. In this relationship the clubs supply the fans with the game and all the emotional, social and psychological benefits attached to it.The fans, in turn, provide the club with fiscal resources in the form of gate receipts, season tickets or membership fees and purchase of licensed merchandise besides the emotional association, support, loyalty, exposure, among other non-tangible benefits. Relationship illustrates the fact that clubs need the league structure to create the on-field competition environment required by fans. And the quality of the competition, measured in the quality of teams taking part in that competition and in the level of free-enterprise(a) balance, is one of the most important drivers of demand for football. This relationship between clubs and leagues 24 is one of the ell-known peculiarities of the Football Industry. In any other industry the ideal objecti ve of the players would be to achieve a monopolistic position impetuous competitors out of business, whereas in the Football Industry this is not only impossible, but also not desirable, since clubs need to cooperate for the joint-production of the game. However, there are inherent conflicts between teams since the league structure also determines a teams individual share of industry profits. Relationship reflects the fact that part of the football fans are not necessarily attached to one specific club but have overall interest in a particular competition.The marketing strategy of the UEFA Champions League has the benefit of strengthening this link finally intending to increase the share of the population interested for European football regardless of a particular team allegiance. In the left side of the map we have television companies. Traditionally, revenues of free-to-air television companies are based on advertizing from sponsors. In order to attract sponsors, 24 Leagues or w hatever entity responsible for organising a football competition 19 television companies must be able to attract audience, and this is done by offering marrow. That is represented by relationship A. Television companies offer content to the public in the quest for an audience.By getting an audience, television companies become attractive to sponsors. That is shown in relationship C. Sponsors will pay to use television as a channel to advertise their products and services to their target markets among the audience. Pay-TV companies have an incremental revenue stream. In addition to publicizing from sponsors they rely on subscription fees from consumers interested in having access to exclusive content. In both cases though, it is clear that audience is key. In markets where the interest for a particular sport captures a large share of the population, which is the case of football in the big-five leagues, the link represented in relationships 25TV companies and sponsors realise the i mportance of and wish to exploit it. That is represented by and relationships ? and ?. In relationship ? , TV companies pay to acquire the right (if possible exclusive) to broadcast individual matches or competitions in the hope to attract an audience. In relationship ? sponsors pay to associate themselves with teams or leagues both as a way to get visibility to sports fans and as a way to associate their brand with the sporting brand they are sponsoring, thus exploring the goodwill present in the link between the fan and the sport. Their ultimate goal is to get the population to consume their products and services.In all cases it is undecomposable to understand that the ultimate source of value for the Football Industry is the interest of the fan for the sport. The fan is the TV viewer, the pay-TV subscriber, the stadium spectator, and potentially the end consumer of the sponsors products and services. The larger the fan base and the larger its identification with the sport, the high the probability that this sport will attract the interest of TV and sponsors. Of course, the potential value of the Football Industry in a particular region will depend also on the size of the TV and the advertisement markets in that region, which in the end bear relation with the demographics of the region. Thus the focal point of he Football Industry is the football fan, 26 and that is the argue why it is crucial for clubs, leagues and governing bodies to understand what drives spectator interest for European football, in other words, what are the drivers of demand for football. Demand for Football Spectatorship Stefan Szymanski summarizes the most important factors driving fan interest for football in three classic elements 27 Quality of the game Uncertainty of outcome (of the match and of the competition) Success of the fans own team 25 26 England, Italy, Spain, Germany and France There are several studies intending to qualify the football fan according to different levels of commitment and interest.For the sake of this paper we qualify as football fan any person interested in the game regardless of the level of commitment. Interview with Stefan SZYMANSKI, Professor of Economics, Imperial College London 27 20 The quality of the game would touch on aspects such as the frolic and spectacle, the aesthetic pleasure of watching the game, the quality of the visiting team. The disbelief of outcome has two major aspects uncertainness of outcome of the match and the uncertainty of outcome of a competition. About the uncertainty of match outcome, the review of the belles-lettres shows that generally, the closer the result of the match is expected to be, the more attractive the game will be to fans.Along the same lines fans would be less enthusiastic about a game in which the result is seen as a foregone conclusion. Furthermore this uncertainty must be preserved at all costs, as the right of the game is completely connected to the integrity of the result. 28 The uncertainty of outcome of the competition is measured in terms of competitive balance. There is general agreement that match attendance will be influenced by the closeness of the championship race. As more teams have a chance of reaching the finals or play-offs, fans will expect a close contest and anticipate high quality play. This anticipation will be reflected in a higher level of fan enjoyment and consumer utility and a boost to crowd size. 29Success of the fans own team implies that supporters achieve satisfaction from identifying with a winning team. Arguably, a team that consistently loses will have difficulty attracting large crowds. active supporter bases than their domestic peers. But if a winning season contributes to the increase of the commitment of the supporter base of a specific club and if the fan base, as argued before, is the principal source of goodwill for a club, it seems obvious to state that clubs, as individual entities, will seek to maximize their wi nning ratios as a way to increase the supporter base. This practice, if successful, will eventually conflict with the element of uncertainty of outcome.The challenge for clubs and organisers of competitions is to understand the optimal combination between those three elements (quality of the game, uncertainty of outcome and success of own team) in the determination of demand for football as they frequently can conflict among themselves. Conclusion In summary, as much as we want to avoid the discussion of football being a business or a game, we must recognise that the dynamics of the football industry present some specific characteristics that make us conclude that football cannot be taken as just a regular business. These special characteristics fall mainly in three inter-related areas 1. Football clubs are cultural and community assets with associated sporting and community objectives.There is a long and unfinished academic debate competition that football clubs are utility 30 Tha t could help to explain why clubs like Manchester United or Real Madrid have larger and more 28 In that sense potential contractual clauses like the one suggested by the press in the Beckham transfer from Manchester United to Real Madrid, in which the acquiring club will pay a bonus to the ceding club based on the formers future performances at championships at which both teams compete could allow for the publics scholarship of match fixing between the two clubs in a specific scenario, which could eventually hurt trailer truckpermanent demand for the game. WESTERBEEK & SMITH, Sport Business in the Global Marketplace, Palgrave, 2003, p. 64 29 30Although formation of fan basis is a more complex phenomenon and depends on many other factors apart from a teams winning record at a given time. 21 maximizers pursuing non-pecuniary objectives rather than maximisation of economic value as any other business. Sloan 31 argues that while in US professional team sports, many teams have an estab lished track record of profitability, in the case of European football teams, profit making clubs have been very much the exception and not the rule. He goes further explaining that chairmen and directors with a unequivocal interest in football clubs are usually individuals who have achieved success in business in other fields.Their motives for investing may include a desire for power or prestige, or simple sporting enthusiasm a wish to see the local club succeed on the field of play. In many cases profit of the club seems unlikely to be the major motivating factor. As one of our experts interviewed puts it Clubs are too much under the control of local business owners or major individuals in the community looking for personal gain. When these people take the reigns of a club usually they end up satisfying themselves. Many of them have come to my office and said For me, investing in a club is just like having a PR campaign. Rather than giving money to an advertising agency, I spoi l a club and since the press talks a lot about me, it has an equivalent effect. . The relationship between the supporter and the club can be very different to a standard customercompany relationship. Lomax 32 explains that most supporters choose their clubs at a young age and then stick to this choice however incorrect it may seem at face value. Football supporters are key stakeholders contributing to the club not just by being loyal customers but also by actively adding to the match day spectacle, and often committing financially to keep their club afloat as it was the case with the English supporters of Northampton FC that contributed with money in a fundraising campaign to alleviate the clubs financial distress. 3.As already mentioned, the Football Industry depends on both competition and co-operation among clubs. Football then redistributes income from leading to lagging clubs (and leagues) in order to promote competitive balance. This redistribution of income would not be all owed in most traditional industries. The combination of those three factors makes the dynamics of the football industry special in relation to most of the other regular forms of businesses. 1. 1. 3. STAKEHOLDERS M AP After analysing the governance structure and the dynamics of the European Football Industry, it makes sense to map its stakeholders in a more comprehensive way. Figure 1. 6 depicts those stakeholders 31SLOANE Peter, The economics of professional football The football club as a utility maximiser, Scottish Journal of Political Economy pp. 121-145, June 1971 32 LOMAX Brian, Democracy and Fandom Developing a supporters trust at Northampton township FC, in GARLAND John, MALCOLM Dominic and ROWE Michael (Ed),The Future of Football Challenges for the 21st century, Frank Cass, 2000 22 Figure 1. 6 Stakeholders represent of the European Football Industry Non Non Exhaustive Exhaustive Fans / Spectators Club Patrons Clubs UEFA Stock Market G-14 European Union Players National L eagues National Associations FIFA European Football Industry Media Sponsors cupboard Once the stakeholders are identified we will make use of table 1. to map their interests, analyse their bargaining power, identify the main groups over which they turn their power and qualify the types of pressures suffered by each group. Some of the points covered in this section are basic and will be explained in more details later, but we think it is important to bear in mind the relationships described below, as they will be helpful to understand the nature of the conflicts treated in this paper. Table 1. 1 General overview of stakeholders interests, power and pressures Stakeholder Main Interests Identification Entertainment Power Focal point of the industry but not sufficiently organised (H/M)* vulnerability Not sufficiently organised in addition emotionally attached to the game, will accept poor treatment Internal conflict between individual and cooperative objectives Pressure exerted Pressure received Fans / Spectators Spectacle Psychological satisfaction Social Integration Immediate pressure for sport performance over clubs Community Fans (H/M) Press (H) Players (H) Pressure on Governing Bodies and leagues over a number of issues related to the regulation of the game (Revenue sharing, competition format, supply of players to national teams, calendar) Patrons (H) UEFA (H) G-14 (H/M) Media (H/M) FIFA (H) Sponsors (H) Leagues (H) Stock Market (H) Nat. Assoc. (H) growth demand for football Clubs On pitch performance limited by budget constraints Basic cell of the industry, controls the most valuable assets for the production of the game (H)* Short-term view Little control over main cost items Not a homogeneous and organized group Lacks direct representation at higher decision making level *High (H), Medium (M), Low (L) 23 Table 1. 1 General overview of stakeholders interests, power and pressures continued Stakeholder Main Interests Develop the followin g of the game in Europe Power* Vulnerability Pressure exerted Pressure received* G-14 (H) Other clubs (M) FIFA (H) UEFA corroborate tight control of the game in Europe Promote solidarity Promote port for all Develop other disciplines of the game Develop the following of the game universally Detains the natural monopoly in the organisation of the game in Europe, holds the key for eligibility of players and clubs at competitions (H) Relies too much on elite club competition to fund its activities Pressure on clubs and players to comply with the regulations and principles EU (H) Press (H) Fans (L) Media (M) Sponsors (L) Players (M) Leagues (L) FIFA Keep a strong control of the game Promote solidarity Develop other disciplines of the game centre to get audience from the fans Is the supreme body of world football (H) Relies too much on one single national team event to fund its activitiesPressure on national associations, confederations, clubs to comply with the rules and r egulations of the game EU (H) Media (M) Sponsors (L) Confederations (M) Media Has an interest in the game as long as it generates audience. Will switch to other content options as soon as it does not Content to get readership from the fans Is the single major investor in the game. Without TV money Football collapses (H) Limited bargaining power over the price of top events Limited concern about the long term issues of the game Subject to competition law Pressure on leagues and UEFA for changes in the format in the quest for immediate rise in audienceFans (H) EU (H) Internal competition (H) Sponsors (H) Press Extremely influential over fans (H) Has the control over the national game, is represented with decision power at UEFA and FIFA, owns the national teams a major source of passion (H/M) Usually controls the central marketing of domestic competitions (M) In the top level, due to the limited supply of talent and due to identification of fans (H). In the lower level due to th e high replaceability (L) Credibility It is the Big Brother watching the steps of Clubs, National Associations, Leagues and Players Fans (H) Other types of media (H) National Leagues (H) Players (H) National Associations Aligned with FIFA and UEFA at the domestic level Being confined to national borders may suffer from globalisation tendencies Pressure on the clubs, and on the leagues G-14 (H) Clubs (M) Fans (M) Media (H) Press (H) National leagues Organise club competition at the domestic level Commercial optimisation of domestic competition Being confined to national borders may suffer from globalisation tendencies Pressure on the clubs for cooperation over the quest for individual objectives, pressure on national associations Clubs (H) Media (H) Fans (L) Self realisation Players Financial security Status In general not too organised Incredibly risky and specific career shortClubs (H/M) Pressure on the clubs for better labour conditions Fans (H) Press (H) Nat. Assoc. (H/M ) Leagues (M) *High (H), Medium (M), Low (L) 24 Table 1. 1 General overview of stakeholders interests, power and pressures continued Stakeholder Main Interests Guarantee fair trade in the industry Help Federations to implement professional management Keep the balance among football and other industries Increase representation of top clubs in the decision making process of professional club football at international level Advise clubs on current financial challenges Power Vulnerability Pressure exerted Pressure received EU Can change the structure in which the professional level of the game is managed (H)Most of the time acts like an observer, not taking action until an actor complains Do not represent all top clubs Not officially recognised by UEFA Cannot impede UEFA or FIFA to directly deal with individual member clubs Threatening behaviour Relegation / Promotion system Eligibility for international competitions Pressure on the governing bodies on anti-competitive prac tices Industry sectors (H) Member states (H) G-14 (The Lobby Group) Represents the major top clubs in Europe (H) Pressure on UEFA, FIFA, national associations, other clubs and the EU Fans (L), UEFA (H), Member clubs (L) Stock Market maximisation of shareholder valueImportant source of funds for some clubs, but not very representative in the industry as a whole (M/L) Too dependant on the highs and lows of sporting performance Subject to regulations made by people who may not be profit seekers Limited sensitivity to the long term peculiarities of the game Limited control over the sponsorship agreement Pressure on the listed clubs for diversification of revenues and for financial returns restrictive bodies (H) Fans (L) Visibility to fans Sponsors Association with the goodwill of clubs and competitions One of the major sources of revenue in the Industry(H) Reduced bargaining power over the price of top events Internal competition in the sponsorship industryPressure on competit ion organisers, clubs and players Shareholders (H) Other sponsors (H) Club Patrons Prestige Value transfer to other businesses Owner and benefactor of the club (H) Too much emotionally involved with the club Over players for pitch performance Fans (M), Players (H), Community (H) *High (H), Medium (M), Low (L) 25 1. 1. 4. PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL COMPETITION CALENDAR The pyramid structure of football governance, along with the international nature of the game impose additional challenges to the organisation of competition in Europe. All layers of the pyramid rely mainly on the organisation and participation at competitions to generate the funds for their activities.Be it FIFA with its quadrennial World Cup or biyearly Confederations Cup , UEFA with the Euro or the UEFA Champions League, the National Associations with the participation in the international competitions for national teams organised by FIFA and UEFA or with the organisation of the domestic cups, the national leagues wit h the organisation of the domestic league, or the clubs participating in domestic and international competitions, all actors depend ultimately on competition to subsist. The complexity in the organisation of the competition calendar comes from the fact that the actors have to share the same restricted resources players and time.National team competitions, to be able to exploit their full commercial potential, have to count on the presence of top players, often the same players that are contend for top teams in club competitions. International club competitions, along the same lines, hope to count with the participation of the most popular clubs, the same ones participating in domestic competitions. All of this constrained by the fact that there are only 52 weeks in the year, and there is a physical limitation to the number of matches a player can play in a given period of time. Thus it is not an easy task to find the right combination of supply among the different types of competit ions the one that will maximise the utility for the football fan. Figure 1. shows the configuration of the football calendar for the season 2002/2003, displaying the major competitions currently being played at the elite level of football in Europe. Figure 1. 7 European Competition Calendar Elite Professional Football Season 2002/2003 2002 June July August September October November December 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 workweek Domestic League1) Domestic Cup6) UEFA Champions League2) UEFA Cup2) UEFA Intertoto Cup Super Cup / Intercontinental FIFA World Cup7) Euro (qualification) International Friendlies3) 4) Na tio n Te al am Cl u b Week 4) Domestic League1) Domestic Cup6) UEFA Champions League2) UEFA Cup2) UEFA Intertoto Cup Super Cup / Intercontinental FIFA World Cup7) Euro (qualification) International Friendlies3) 003 Season 02/03 January February March April May J Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 Matchdates 38 10 23 15 10 2 9 8 4 Na tio n Te al am Notes Cl ub 1) Based on the English Premier League 2) Including qualifying rounds 3) According to FIFA Coordinated International Calendar 4) Week 22 starts on Monday May 26th and finishes on Sunday June 1st 5) Weekend matches include Monday and Friday for the Domestic League 6) Based on the FA Cup Starting at the 3rd round when Premier League clubs join the cup 7) Maximum of 7 matches per national team Key Weekend matches5) Mid-week matches Source Analysis of the authors based on data from Rec. Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF), UEFA and FIFA 26 Figure 1. 7 shows that the majority of the annual football activity is based on domestic club football, including a domestic league and a domestic cup. Although the graph is based on the Premier League and the FA Cup, the activity in other countries follow a similar pattern. There is usually a domestic league being played from August to May mainly during the weeke nds with a number of match dates varying slightly depending on the number of participants at the top division of the league (usually between 18 and 20 in the major markets), and there is a domestic cup usually being played during the mid weeks over around 10 rounds. he UEFA Intertoto Cup. UEFA Champions League Eligibility for the UEFA Champions League depends on the technical performance of clubs at their domestic leagues, and on the ranking of national associations prepared by UEFA. As an example, the champions and the runners-up at the English Premier League automatically secure a berth among the 32 participants at the UEFA Champions League, while the third and fourth places will play at a qualifying stage. The same is valid for Spain and Italy. But countries ranked lower by UEFA receive a reduced number of berths for the competitions with some countries receiving only a place at the qualifying phases.The competition is preceded by three qualifying phases played by 56 clubs enteri ng in different stages. From the qualifying phases 16 clubs eventually gain access to the competition. Those clubs join the other 16 that secured an automatic berth, totalling 32 clubs. Currently, the 32 clubs play a first group stage (eight groups of four teams) with the two top teams in each group qualifying for a second group stage (four groups of four teams). The group stages are followed by a knock out stage (quarter finals and cheat finals) with home and away matches followed by a one leg final match at a predetermined venue. For the season 2003/04 UEFA has decided to eliminate the second group stage, meaning that the sixteen clubs ualifying from the first group stage (eight groups of four teams) will enter directly into the knock out stage (eighth finals, quarter finals, semi finals, and the final). This will reduce the maximum number of matches per club from 17 to 13. UEFA Cup Eligibility for the UEFA Cup is open to teams finishing in leading positions behind the champions in the domestic top divisions, besides the winners of the national cup competition, the winners of the league cup competition in certain countries, the three winners of the final matches at the UEFA Intertoto Cup and three clubs from UEFAs annual fair play assessment. The UEFA Cup is a knock-out competition played home and away (except for the final match which is played in a one leg match) and is preceded by a qualifying stage.At the third round, the eight teams falling in third place at the first group stage of the UEFA Champions League, also join the UEFA Cup. Figure 1. 8 Illustrates the format of the UEFA Cup, which is currently being revised by UEFA. 34 33 In the international scenario, there are three main club competitions currently being organised by UEFA, The UEFA Champions League, The UEFA Cup and 33 The domestic cup usually counts on the participation of clubs from many professional divisions, but the top clubs will join the cup at an advanced stage. Not considering the q ualifying rounds 34 27 Figure 1. 8 Format of the UEFA Cup of Clubs 82 41 + 52 96 48 24 + 3 From Intertoto Qualifying Stage First Round Second Round + 8 From UCL 32 16 8 4 2 Champion Third Round Eighth Finals

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