Thursday, January 30, 2020

Nano Chemistry Essay Example for Free

Nano Chemistry Essay 1.1 Definition Nanochemistry is concerned with generating and altering chemical systems, which develop special and often new effects as a result of the laws of the nanoworld. The bases for these are chemically active nanometric units such as supramolecules or nanocrystals. Nanochemistry looks set to make a great deal of progress for a large number of industry sectors. Nanotechnology exists in the realm where many scientific disciplines meet. Achievements in physics are getting progressively smaller – from valves to electronics, down to microelectronics and quantum computing. It mirrors the downsizing in focus in the biological sciences, from cells to genomics. Conversely, achievements in chemistry have been converging into the nanometre range from below – from atoms and molecules to supramolecular chemistry. Nanochemisty focuses on the unique properties of materials in the 1–100 nm scale. The physical, chemical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of these materialsare all significantly different from both the properties of the individual building blocks (individual atoms or molecules), and also from the bulk materials.Nanochemistry is a truly multidisciplinary field, forming a bridge between nanotechnology and biotechnology, spanning the physical and life sciences. The Nanochemistry Research Institute (NRI) at Curtin carries out world-class research to provide innovative solutions to energy and resources materials and manufacturing electronics agricultural environmental management, and health and medical industries Nanochemistry applications in the materials, resources and energy sectors range from the design of crystalline catalysts and the control of crystal size, morphology, phase and purity, to the design and use of additives to control crystallization and inhibit scale formation. In the biological field, control of chemistry at the supramolecular level can lead to the development of a wide variety of new and improved biomaterials, such as artificial bones and tissues, as well as new pharmaceuticals and improved methods of drug delivery.1 ENGINEERING, SCIENCE ‘‘We are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more than they.’’ Bernard of Chartres, 12th century with nanoscience being the discipline concerned with making, manipulating and imaging materials having at least one spatial dimension in the size range 1–1000 nm and nanotechnology being a device or machine, product or process, based upon individual or multiple integrated nanoscale components, then what is nanochemistry? In its broadest terms, the de.ning feature of nanochemistry is the utilization of synthetic chemistry to make nanoscale building blocks of different size and shape, composition and surface structure, charge and functionality. These building blocks may be useful in their own right. Or in a self-assembly construction process, spontaneous, directed by templates or guided by chemically or lithographically de.ned surface patterns, they may form architectures that perform an intelligent function and portend a particular use.2 1.2 Objective of nanochemistry Creating nanoparticles Allowing properties of nanosystems to evolve, manipulating and controlling them Encapsulating and transporting materials (e.g. deodorant with nanodroplets)4 1.3 Nanochemistry used in: Cosmetics, e.g. sunscreen, toothpaste, skincare products Sanitary ware Built-in ovens and baking trays Gas-tight packaging Screens, photographic films Separating technology for waste water treatment and food production Catalysers for chemical reactions Exhaust purification5 It is also used in formation of :- Commercialization of nanochemicals Nanooxides of precious, ferromagnetic, rare metals (Ti, Zr etc.) Nanopolymers and membranes Nanomaterials (cement, fertilizers) Nanopowders in chemical applications Nanogreen chemistry Nano energy applications Environmental applications of nanotechnology When thinking about self-assembly of a targeted structure from the spontaneous organization of building blocks with dimensions that are beyond the sub-nanometer scale of most molecules or macromolecules, there are five prominent principles that need to be taken into consideration. These are: (i) building blocks, scale, shape, surface structure, (ii) attractive and repulsive interactions between building blocks, equilibrium separation, (iii) reversible association–dissociation and/or adaptable motion of building blocks in assembly, lowest energy structure, (iv) building block interactions with solvents, interfaces, templates, (v) building-blocks dynamics, mass transport and agitation. A challenge for perfecting structures made by this kind of self-assembly chemistry is to .nd ways of synthesizing (bottom-up) or fabricating (top-down) building blocks not only with the right composition but also having the same size and shape. No matter which way building blocks are made they are never truly monodisperse, nless they happen to be single atoms or molecules. There always exists a degree of polydispersity in their size and shape, which is manifest in the achievable degree of structural perfection of the assembly and the nature and population of defects in the assembled system. Equally demanding is to make building blocks with a particular surface structure, charge and functionality. Surface properties will control the interactions between building blocks as well as with their environment, which ultimately determines the geometry and distances at which building blocks come to equilibrium in a self-assembled system. Relative motion between building blocks facilitates collisions between them, whilst energetically allowed aggregation deaggregation processes and corrective movements of the self-assembled structure will allow it to attain the most stable form. 6 Providing the building blocks are not too strongly bound in the assembly it will be able to adjust to an orderly structure. If on the other hand the building blocks in the assembly are too strongly interacting, they will be unable to adjust their relative positions within the assembly and a less 1 ordered structure will result. Dynamic effects involving building blocks and assemblies can occur in the liquid phase, at an air/liquid or liquid/liquid interface, on the surface of a substrate or within a template co-assembly. As this text describes, building blocks can be made out of most known organic, inorganic, polymeric, and hybrid materials. Creative ways of making spheres and cubes, sheets and discs, wires and tubes, rings and spirals, with nm to cm dimensions, abound in the materials self-assembly literature. They provide the basic construction modules for materials self-assembly over all scales, a new way of synthesizing electronic, optical, photonic, magnetic materials with hierarchical structures and complex form, which is the central theme running throughout this chapter. A .owchart describing these main ideas is shown in igure 1. Nano-, a pre.x denoting a factor, its origin in the Greek nanos, meaning dwarf. The term is often associated with the time interval of a nanosecond, a billionth of a second, and the length scale of a nanometer, a billionth of a meter or 10 A  ° . In its broadest terms, nanoscience and nanotechnology congers up visions of making, imaging, manipulating and utilizing things really small. Feynman’s prescient nano world ‘‘on the head of a pin’’ inspires scientists and technologists to venture into this uncharted nano-terrain to do something big with something small.7 1.4 Large and Small Nanomaterials It was not so long ago in the world of molecules and materials that 1 nm (1 nm  ¼ 10 A  ° ) was considered large in chemistry while 1 m m (1 m m  ¼ 1000 nm  ¼ 10,000 A  ° ) was considered small in engineering physics. Matter residing in the ‘‘fuzzy interface’’ between these large and small extremes of length scales emerged as the science of nanoscale materials and has grown into one of the most exciting and vibrant fields of endeavor, showing all the signs of having a revolutionary impact on materials as we know them today. In our time, ‘‘nano’’ has left the science reservation and entered the industrial technology consciousness and public and political perception. Indeed, bulk materials can be remodeled through bottom-up synthetic chemistry and top-down engineering physics strategies as nanomaterials in two main ways, the first by reducing one or more of their physical dimensions to the nanoscale and the second by providing them with nanoscale porosity. When talking about finely divided and porous forms of nanostructured matter, it is found that ‘‘nanomaterials characteristically exhibits physical and chemical properties different from the bulk as a consequence of having at least one spatial dimension in the size range of 1–1000 nm’’.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

We devised apiece of drama with the help of the story that was written :: Drama

We devised apiece of drama with the help of the story that was written with words extractedfrom the poem: Walls. I represented. We devised a piece of drama with the help of the story that was written with words extracted from the poem: Walls. I represented Jerusalem; the holy city of God. I was positioned at the centre in-between the two worshippers to show that Jerusalem is a place of pilgrimage and prayer. In front of me, either side, were the soldiers that guarded Jerusalem and the people within. Behind me (Jerusalem) were the two builders, again either side, building the ‘wall’ around me; which is known as the Wailing Wall or Western Wall. The Western Wall in Jerusalem is the holiest site in Judaism. The wall is all that remains of the Second temple, built by Herod the Great. Jews traditionally visit the site, which is also known as the Wailing Wall, to lament the destruction of the First and Second Temples and to offer prayers. My group showed narrated action where the narrator (enacted by me) spoke directly to the audience to comment on the events happening on stage. I was tall and stood up straight so therefore I had the highest level. In the opening freeze, as shown in the stick diagram, my arms were raised high above and spread outwards to symbolically show that I am a vast piece of land i.e. Jerusalem. Indeed, it is a place for protection, safety and support for the people living here. I had a strong and bold tone of voice and said the narration loudly and clearly. A piece of prop that we had used was a sari that was draped around me to show a sense of divinity and to represent the holy land of God. The worshippers had themselves knelt down to show their devotion and respect as well as their humility (lower level). The proximity between me and the worshippers are really close because they are the inhabitants of the city and are part of the community. The soldiers were upstanding and sturdy as I was (Jerusalem) because the well-being of the people and the city is under their guardianship. The builders of the wall, who were behind me, were miming movements of real builders such as; one hand clenched like a fist, the other ‘holding’ a hammer and building. Since it was a spontaneous improvisation we had only little time to prepare. Using the time we had, I think we had prepared a clear and engaging presentation of the story. The soldiers (Craig and Dior) moved from their designate places to the opposite side (left to right), back and

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Causes and Effects of Poverty

Causes and Effects of Poverty In the U. S. , there have been statistics that show that 15 to 25% of the population is living in poverty. Poverty is known as not being able to provide bare minimum requirements to survive, such as food and shelter. There are many causes that associate with poverty, that could include unemployment rates or people believe that some people are just lazy. The effects of poverty can be substantial. It effects people’s health, environment, and causes deprivations. The unemployment rate is still high today, which means there are people who still live in poverty.Some people are not just lazy; it just seems that it is difficult to find employment right now. Many people that are in poverty are because they did not continue their education after high school and many jobs are requiring degrees. Another reason some people are in poverty, is because they made mistakes in their past and when they try to make their life right they have difficulty finding employ ment. There are many reasons for poverty, but most of the causes are the unemployment rate. An effect of poverty is malnutrition.Malnutrition during infancy and childhood years can cause many great complications with development. Many children that suffer from malnutrition could have poor immune systems, developmental problems with their nervous system, or even brain damage. Compared to children that are not poor, children in poverty are two to three times more likely to have some sort of mental or physical disability from malnutrition. Children who grow up in poverty are also usually unlikely to finish their education. Many children in poverty are about 75 percent less likely to graduate high school than a child that is not poor.Even if a child that grows up in poverty does graduate high school, they are less likely to continue their education with college. As a matter of fact, less than four percent of children in the lowest quartile of family’s income do not graduate colle ge. In today’s world education is important. Many jobs today will not hire people without an education or even without a college degree. All in all, poverty is a big issue. It has been for a long time, just maybe one day the government will help fix the issue. It is not fair for all the children that live in poverty to suffer because their parents work so hard just to make ends meet.Education is the key to success these days, and we should all make sure our children are aware of that at a young age. Works Cited Chitranshi, Mansi. â€Å"Cause and Effects of Poverty. † Articles Wave (2009). Hill, Lewis E. â€Å"The Institutional Economics of Poverty: An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of Poverty. † Journal of Economic Issues (1998): 279-285. Hunt, Matthew O. The Individual, Society, or Both? A Comparison of Black, Latino, and White Beliefs about the Causes of Poverty. September 1996. Lamson, John. â€Å"Exploring the Ecology of Poverty. † Human Ecology (2009): 4-9.

Monday, January 6, 2020

ERIKSSON Surname Meaning and Origin

Eriksson  is a patronymic surname meaning son of Erik, or Eriks son. Eriksson is the fifth most common surname in Sweden, behind Johansson, Andersson, Karlsson, and Nilsson. Swedish patronymic son names traditionally end in -son,  not -sen.  In Denmark the regular patronymic is -sen.  In Norway, both are used, although -sen  is more common. Icelandic names traditionally end in -son  or -dotir. Thus, Eriksen or Erikssen is the most common Danish, Norwegian, Dutch and German spelling, while Erikson or Ericson is the most common spelling found in the United States. Surname Origin:  Swedish, Danish, Norwegian,  English, German Alternate Surname Spellings:  ERICSSON, ERIKSON, ERIKSSEN, ERICSSEN, ERIKSEN, ERICSEN   Fun Facts About the ERIKSSON Surname Many Danes, Norwegians and Swedes who emigrated to America with the last name Eriksson or Erikssen, dropped the extra-s  after their arrival.   Famous People with the Surname ERIKSSON Leif Ericsson - Scandanavian explorerErik Erikson - German psychologist Genealogy Resources for the Surname ERIKSSON Erikson DNA PortalLearn how to best approach DNA testing when you have a Scandinavian  patronymic surname such as Eriksson. Eriksson Family Crest - Its Not What You ThinkContrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as an Eriksson  family crest or coat of arms for the Eriksson surname.  Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted.   Eriksson Family Genealogy ForumSearch this popular genealogy forum for the Ericson surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Ericson query.   FamilySearch - ERIKSSON  GenealogyExplore over 3.7  million  historical records which mention individuals with the Eriksson surname, as well as online Eriksson family trees on this free website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. GeneaNet - Eriksson  RecordsGeneaNet includes archival records, family trees, and other resources for individuals with the Eriksson  surname, with a concentration on records and families from France and other European countries. ERIKSSON  Surname Family Mailing ListsRootsWeb hosts several free mailing lists for researchers of the Eriksson surname. - ERIKSSON Genealogy Family HistoryFree databases and genealogy links for the last name Eriksson. The Eriksson  Genealogy and Family Tree PageBrowse family trees and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the last name Eriksson  from the website of Genealogy Today. ----------------------- References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil.  Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Dorward, David.  Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998. Fucilla, Joseph.  Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges.  A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick.  Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Reaney, P.H.  A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997. Smith, Elsdon C.  American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. Back toGlossary of Surname Meanings Origins

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