Thursday, December 12, 2019

Forensic Toxicology-Case Study-Free-Samples-Myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Forensic Toxicology Case Study. Answer: The spectra of each case samples linked to the testing of Human Growth Hormone is interpreted in this section based on the confirmatory results. Together with the information obtained in part one and two of the case study, this paper presents a written final case report on all the case samples. Interpretation High HGH levels linked to high levels of IGF-1. Normal HGH and IGF-1 receptors trigger gigantism (kids) and acromegaly (adults). The conditions are: tumor in pituitary gland often result in benign adenoma. Also, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-I). Non-pituitary gland tumor situated in lungs, pancreases, adrenal gland and elsewhere secreting either HGH or HGH-releasing hormone (GHRH). It can then stimulate the production of HGH by pituitary gland. Also, McCune-Albright Syndrome can ensue. High levels of HGH are never linked to high IGH-1 levels and have been observed in such conditions as: uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, starvation, kidney illness, inherited GH resistance also called Laron syndrome. High GH levels linked to high IGH-1 levels are seen in such conditions as: dwarfism as a result of IGF-1 resistance due to inactivating mutation in IGF-1 receptor. Low levels of GH linked to low IGF-1 levels trigger dwarfism in kids alongside imprecise, broad-based symptom alongsi de surged risk of CVD (adults). It is observed in such condition as hypopituitarism (Meyer, Burgos-Robles, Liu, Correia Goosens, 2014). The GH stimulation test: where levels of GH remain insignificantly stimulated during the HGH stimulation test (stay lower than normal), and the individual has signs and symptoms of GHD (and lower IGF-1 level), when measured), it is probably that there is a HGH deficiency that the health provider might treat. Where the TSH and/or T4 level of an individual stays normal, then it will probably be addressed initially as thyroid illness can trigger symptoms identical to GHD. An individual might further have hypopituitarism and/or a more general drop in function of pituitary. The HGH testing for GH deficiency must not be carried out till an individuals thyroid function has been effectively evaluated (Lewis et al., 2015). Where hypothyroidism is present in a child, it must be treated and the growth rate of the child evaluated before testing GH is considered. Where an individual exercises vigorously and doesnt experience a rise in levels of GH, then such a person might have a deficiency of GH which has to be followed up with GH testing. HGH suppression test: In case an individual levels of GH are never significantly suppressed in the course of HGH suppression test (stay higher than normal), and the individual has signs and symptoms of GH excess (acromegaly or gigantism), and IGF-1 level high (when measured), it is probably that the individual tested is secreting too much HGH. Where a mass showcases on an X-ray, MRI, CT scan, the pituitary tumor (often benign) is probably present Where a person is being monitored for a past tumor, the surges in HGH might denote a recurrence. Pituitary tumours remain the common trigger of HGH production, however, they might as well trigger deficiencies. The tumor presenc e can affect both production of HGH and ACTH and prolactin. Where tumor is comparatively huge, it might inhibit the production of all pituitary-secreted hormones and trigger surrounding tissues damage (Gonzalez, Windram, Sathyapalan, Javed, Clark Atkin, 2017). In conclusion, from the three assignments; 1, 2 and 3, I have been able to understand how to test and interpret the results of lab test effectively. References Gonzalez, S., Windram, J. D., Sathyapalan, T., Javed, Z., Clark, A. L., Atkin, S. L. (2017). Effects of human recombinant growth hormone on exercise capacity, cardiac structure, and cardiac function in patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. Journal of International Medical Research, 0300060517723798. Lewis, A. L., Jordan, F., Patel, T., Jeffery, K., King, G., Savage, M., ... Illum, L. (2015). Intranasal Human Growth Hormone (hGH) Induces IGF-1 Levels Comparable With Subcutaneous Injection With Lower Systemic Exposure to hGH in Healthy Volunteers. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 100(11), 4364-4371. Meyer, R. M., Burgos-Robles, A., Liu, E., Correia, S. S., Goosens, K. A. (2014). A ghrelingrowth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear. Molecular psychiatry, 19(12), 1284-1294.

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