Friday, August 2, 2019

Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay -- essays research papers

Rheumatoid Arthritis or (RA) is an autoimmune disease that attacks the joints and connective tissue. The result is inflammation that produces permanent damage in the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic syndrome that tends to be progressive and destructive as compared to Osteoarthritis or (OA), which is more of an age related disease caused by â€Å"wear and tear† of the joints. In contrast to (OA), rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by inflammation mostly of the joints, but is a general body disease. The type of joint that is chronically affected is the synovial joint. The bones that are at a synovial joint are covered by articular cartilage; which reduces friction and absorbs shock. The space between the articulating bones is called the synovial cavity, which is surrounded by an articular capsule. The outer layer of the capsule is called the fibrous capsule and consists of dense irregular connective tissue. The inner layer of the capsule is lined with the synovial membrane, which is composed of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers and may also contain adipose tissue. In a healthy joint the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid. The fluid not only reduces friction and lubricates the joint, but it also supplies nutrients and removes debris, wastes, and microbes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Rheumatoid arthritis affects twice as many women as it does men. It can develop in child hood, but in most cases it develops between the ages of twenty-five and fifty. Rheumatoid arthritis itself may not be inherited, but what can be inherited are the genes that may make someone more likely to develop the disease including those genes that control the immune system.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Normally the immune system protects your body against foreign proteins like bacteria, fungi, or viruses and it does this by attacking them and producing antibodies. In Rheumatoid arthritis the immune system loses it’s ability to tell the difference between these antigens and the bodies normal cells. The body begins to attack the normal cells by using its plasma cells to produce antibodies called serum rheumatoid factors (RF). The chemical messengers called cytokines control the inflammatory process. One of the key cytokines is called Tumor Necrosis Factor or TNF; which is part of the normal inflammatory process. People with rheumatoid arthritis have been foun... ...neumonitis, bone marrow suppression, and with long term use even malignancy. Treatment also consists of rest and a nutritious diet. Some supplements such as fish or plant oils can be taken to partially relief some of Cavezza 7 the symptoms because they can decrease the production of prostaglandins. Exercise and physiotherapy can restore muscle mass and help preserve the range of motion. This is recommended after the inflammation subsides. Another alternative if or when drugs fail is arthroscopic or surgical synovectomy, which temporarily relieves inflammation. Prosthetic replacement of joints is possible, but this greatly reduces the functionality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rheumatoid arthritis affects everyone differently. In most patients, joint symptoms develop gradually over several years. In some people, rheumatoid arthritis may progress rapidly. Other people may have rheumatoid arthritis for a limited period of time and then enter a period of remission. More than two million people in the United States alone have rheumatoid arthritis and with research and development of new drugs and gene therapy there may be a clearer picture of a patients future and quality of life.

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