Thursday, April 4, 2019

Theories of psychological research

Theories of psychological interrogation gays atomic number 18 expect to deal with an immense amount of data whilst dealing with everydaycomplex tasks such(prenominal) as slip at high velocitys in variable weather conditions and street conditions. Yet, seek has shown that there is a keep back to what humanes bottom of the inning handle.It is well documented that human misunderstanding on the pass causes minor blur to fatal accidents and evendamage. Treat et al (1977) calculated that human error is a major change factor in 90% ofaccidents and was also the only factor in 57% of accidents.This essay forget consider both theories of psychological research on human memory. Attention andperception that washstand be used to assist understanding of the cause of human error on the roads.It will provide an overview of these twain theories and the limitations in human entropy treatthat contri exactlyes to accidents. It will also consider human error and how the research ment i unitaryd hardlyt end beapplied to minimise driver errors on the roads. It will conclude with a come in of possibilities consideredto reduce human error.Several studies noned that capacity of earthly concern to process information is limited in capacity.Green(1991)research confirms that the flow of information whilst undertaking everyday tasks as crusadeis complex with the driver handling divers(a) information at the same time such as auditive and visualinput vehicles, pedestrians, road signs, weather conditions. There is a continuous demand on thedrivers memory who is also handling new(prenominal) auditory information such as talking to other passengers,listening to music, and recalling or recognising directions. Information processing theory is used to explain the importance of management. Several studies show thataccidents occur when the driver was guidancesed on something else. Several studies reveal that the drivercan carry put all of the above tasks if visual and au ditory input is low. However, if there is an increase indemand for attention when there is poor visibility or the driver is driving very fast, or driver is affectedby fatigue or alcoholic beverage then attentional capacity is reduced.This limitation in capacity relates to bottleneck theories which suggests information enters theawareness one at a time whilst the information capacity theories propose information is processed through dissimilar channels, but each channel has a limited capacity. The driver does not have the capacityfor inputs they can only pay attention to certain number of information.Broadbent(1958),Treisman(1960) and Deutsch Deutsch(1963) put forward the theories of selectiveattention that rest influential, despite current theories focus on capacity theory, and the decay ofinformation explained by Baddeley Hitch(1974).Broadbent Filter pretense theory is establish on Atkinson and Shiffrin multi-store memory amaze (1968) thatexplains memory processes and sequenc es stages sensory, short-term and massive term memory. Theresearch confirms that the driver processes two types of stimulus. According to Broadbent the inputcomes through the filter and the other stimuli are held in a bottleneck for processing later. Baddeley Hitch (1974) working memory not only has limited capacity but also information decays,this gives limitation in regards to new information being held. There is some problem with Filter modelTheory of attention. Cherry (1953) cocktail party effect taste confirms the subject focusesattention on interesting stimuli whilst ignoring other stimulus. Again, Treisman (1960) proposed that ifstimulus has meaning it can be processed, whilst Deutsch and Deutsch (1963) proposed that if stimulusneeds to be responded to it can be selected later.The conclusion to be drawn from this, is that driver capacity to interact safely on the road is reducedand the possibility of human error increases because of the demands placed on attention. With s uchcomplex tasks as driving, information would not be retained or recalled, and as the capacity for inputsare limited the driver can only pay attention to certain pieces of information, so information whichcould be important could slip from memory. The rationalize remains of how to get drivers to focus theirattention fully on the road.Human perception is another research area that can be applied to human error on the roads. Humanperception is based on context and expectations the bottom up and swipe down approach. Several studiesreveal that perceptual error jeopardise road safety. For example drivers often admit to not seeing visibleinformation such as pedestrians crossing the road. In addition drivers misinterpret information such asspeed or closeness to other vehicles. or drivers misread the speed or the closeness of other vehicles.Mack disputation (1992) researched visual perception of unexpected shapes whilst looking at it directly. Thisphenomenon is called inattentional bli ndness or perceptual blindness. This phenomenon occurs whensubjects do not see visible objects in face of them. This can be for reasons such as overload ofinformation or their attention is focussed on something else that has meaning, or no internal reference to the visible object. Simons, Chabris (2004) experiment on perception resulted in showing how subjects did not see an incident happening in front of them. This experiment involved participants playing basketball game and missing an unexpected appearance of someone robed up in a white gorilla suit walk onto the ball court during the game. Subjects did not recall seeing the white gorilla.Scholl et al (2003) research also suggests that auditory input such as talking on mobile telephone can increase the opportunity of a subject developing to notice the unexpected and leading to increased human errors.This research on perception has implications for road safety, as drivers often report they did not see thepedestrian or car in fr ont. The driver focus on what they expect to see top down processing ratherthan on the unexpected objects. This results in the likelihood of important and unexpected objects beingmissed. Neisser (1976) suggests that is not either or for humans. Perception involves both top down and bottom up processing becoming a perceptual cycle.Reason (1991) extensive research on human error defines error as circumstances in which plannedaction fail to achieve the desired outcome. Examples of this are stepping on the brakes too late andfailing to stop at red traffic lights. Norman Shallice(1986) and Reason(1991)theory could be used to explain human error in driving tasks and knowledge. Norman and Shallice propose two types of control controlled control and automatic control. Controlled control being within awareness, but apprised and limited and automatic control out of awareness, creates automacity in tasks already rehearsed over a long period of time. This become out of awareness and is perfo rmed without effort like driving.Reason (1991) also suggests that there are 3 types of cognitive processes that cause errors. Skills based error or slips these consist of automatic action that was unconscious(p)Rules based mistakes these consist of non-appliance of a heuristic to undertake a taskKnowledge based conscious thought to solve a problemFinally Reason (2000) Swiss Cheese Model of human error can assist in understanding how road accidentoccurs. All slices of the cheese model have gaps which have to be aligned for an accident to occur. Thusa combination of factors can cause human error. To reduce the chance of accident road experts coulduse Reason model to identify the factors that precede reducing unsafe acts such as talking on mobileswhilst driving, visible multiple cues, signals, colour coding, speed limits and road examinations are someof the examples observed to reduce road fatalities.ConclusionThis essay has attempted to presently explain the psychological research on memory that could be appliedto the road. It concludes that this research on attention and perception can help to understand thecause of human errors on the road. However, memory research is mum laboratory based, and opens tocriticism regarding ecological validity. In deed human error is inevitable and getting humans to adapttheir behaviour may prove challenging.ReferencesTreat,J,R, Tumbus,N,S,McDonald,S,T,Shinar,D,Hume,R,D,Mayer,R,E,Stanisfer,R,L and Castellan,N,J(1977) Tri-level study of the cause of traffic accidents report No.DOT-HS-034-3-535-7777(TAC)Green, M (1991) visual Search, Visual streams and Visual architectures. Perception and Psychophysics, 50,388-403Cherry, C (1958) some experiments in the recognition of speech with one and two ears, Journal of acoustical society of America, 25,975-979Broadbent, D (1958) Perception and Communication London/New York, Pergamon PressAtkinson,R and Shiffrin,R(1968) Human memory A proposed system and its control processes, In K,W Spen ce and J,T Spence(Eds) The psychology of learning motivation (vol2) London academician pressBaddeley,A Hitch,G (1974)Working memory in G Bower(Ed) The psychology of learning motivation(vol 8)pp.47-90 San Diego, Academic PressTreisman, A (1960) contextual cues in selective listening. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12,242-248Mack, A Rock, I (199 ) Inattentional Blindness Cambridge,MA,MIT PressScholl,B Noles,N,Pashera,V,Sussman,R(2003) public lecture on cellular phone dramatically increases sustained Inattentional blindnessabstractJournal of vision,3(9)156,156aSimons,D Chabris,C(1999) Gorillas in our Midst Sustained Inattentional blindness for dynamical events.Perception,28,1059-1071Reason,J(2000) Human Error, Models and management, British Medical Journal,320 768-770Norman,D,A,Shallice,T(1986) Attention to Action Willed and automatic control of behaviour in R.J. Davidson,G.E Schwartz and D.Shapiro(Ed)The physique of everyday living, New York, DoubledayNeisser(19 76)Cognition and Reality San Francisco,CA,W.H Freeman

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